Flag of Aruba

Aruba
阿魯巴

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

國歌

  Click for Aruba, Aruba Forecast  
 

當地時間                                                 

 
   簡介   地理   人口   政治   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Aruba

Aruba    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

位于加勒比海南部小安的列斯群島的最西端,島上最早的居民是阿拉瓦克印第安人。1499年西班牙占領該島。1643年易手荷蘭。1807年被英國奪取。1814年重歸荷蘭管轄,併成為荷屬安的列斯的一部分。1986年1月1日宣布正式脫離荷屬安的列斯,成為荷蘭王國的一個單獨的政治實體,荷蘭繼續負責該島的國防和對外事務。在經濟和貨幣事務方面阿魯巴與荷屬安的列斯組成合作聯盟。人民生活 政府對居民提供免費醫療。島上有一所荷蘭援建的現代化醫院。

Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.

Aruba    Geography Top of Page
Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: 面積 193平方公里。

total:  193 sq km

land:  193 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 68.5 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: 屬熱帶氣候,年平均氣溫27℃。

tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Mount Jamanota 188 m
Natural resources: NEGL; white sandy beaches
Land use:  土質貧瘠,農業不發達。種有供制化妝品和藥品用的蘆薈。1996年捕魚150噸。arable land:  7% (incling aloe 0.01%)

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  93% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 0.01 sq km
Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
Environment - current issues: NA
Aruba    People Top of Page
Population: 人口 70,007人(2001年七月)。

70,007 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  21.29% (male 7,709; female 7,193)

15-64 years:  68.52% (male 23,111; female 24,859)

65 years and over:  10.19% (male 2,954; female 4,181) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.64% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 1997年出生率為1~64%。

12.64 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 死亡率為0∼55%。

6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.71 male(s)/female

total population:  0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 6.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  78.52 years

male:  75.16 years

female:  82.04 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Aruban(s)

adjective:  Aruban; Dutch
Ethnic groups: 主要為印第安人與歐洲白人的混血後裔。

mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: 80%以上的居民信奉天主教,少數信奉基督教新教。

Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages: 官方語言為荷蘭語,通用帕彼曼都語,也講西班牙語和英語。

Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Education: 文化教育
【教育】 實行非義務教育。教育制度與荷蘭類似。初等教育從六歲開始,學制六年。中等教育學制五年。1991年成人文盲率約3%。1994年政府教育開支約占預算的228%。1995年學校、學生、教師情況如下:

學校(所) 學生(人) 教師(人)

小學 34 7606 357
初中 9 2132 121
高中 1 1263 68
技術和職業學校 13 2778 208
師範學校 1 71 22
殘疾人學校 3 255 35
大學 1 300
Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  97%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%
Aruba    Government Top of Page
Country name: 稱為部長會議,通常由大選獲勝的黨派組成,對議會負責,任期四年。本為政府于1998年成立。政府主要成員如下:總理兼總務部長簡·亨德塈J·埃曼(Jan Hendrik A. Eman),交通、通訊和公用設施部長威廉·;羅力克(willem Vrolijk),財政部長羅伯特克·克羅埃斯(Robertico R. Croes),司法兼公共工程部長埃德加·沃斯(Edgar J. Vos),經濟事務和旅游部長莉莉亞·貝克-馬丁內斯(Lilia G.Berke Martinez),教育和勞工部長瑪利·韋弗·拉克爾(Mary Wever Lacle),公共衛生、體育和社會事務部長伊斯雷H爾·IBF波斯納(Israel Posner),《BFQ》為駐荷蘭阿魯巴領地部長會議成員安東尼奧·克羅埃斯(Antonio G.Croes),阿魯巴領地駐華盛頓全權部長蒙真(T. Monzon。   conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Aruba
Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs
Government type:  立法機構,一院制,由普選產生,有21個議席,任期四年。本眾議會于1997年12月12日大選產生,阿魯巴人民黨獲10席,阿魯巴人民選舉運動獲9席,阿魯巴解放組織獲2席。議長克奡絡戌w(M V Christians)。

parliamentary democracy

Capital: 首府 奧拉涅斯塔德

Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March
Constitution: 1 January 1986
Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 【司法機構】 本島設初審法庭,在荷屬安的列斯的庫拉索島設荷屬安的列斯和阿魯巴聯合高級法院。首席法官和總檢察長均為終身制,由荷蘭女王同兩實體的政府協商後任命。聯合高級法院首席法官韋恩霍爾特(M W Ijinholt)。阿魯巴總檢察長茲溫克爾斯(J. H. M.Zwinkels)。chief of state:  Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992)

head of government:  Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ

cabinet:  Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)

elections:  the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 12 July 1997 (next to be held by December 2001)

election results:  Jan (Henny) H. EMAN elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%; Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ elected deputy prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held by NA December 2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - AVP 43%, MEP 39%, OLA 9% PPA 4%, ADN 2%, PARA 1%, MAS 0.5%; seats by party - AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA 2
Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (jges are appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders: 總督 奧林多·庫爾曼(Olindo Koolman),1992年就任。

【政黨】"HT5"SS為全島有七個政黨。主要是:
(1)阿魯巴人民黨(Arubaanse Volkspartij):主要執政黨。1942年成立。贊同阿魯巴目前的"分離狀態"。領袖簡·亨德塈J·埃曼。
(2)阿魯巴解放組織(Organisacion Liberal Arubiano):與阿魯巴人民黨聯合執政。1991年成立。領袖格倫伯特·克羅斯(Glenbert FPCroes)。
(3)阿魯巴人民選舉運動(Movimentu Electoral di Pueblo):社會黨,主要在野黨。1971年成立,有黨員1200人。領袖納爾遜·奧杜貝爾(Nelson O.  Oduber)。政治 :1994年7月舉行大選,阿魯巴人民黨獲10席,該党聯合阿魯巴解放組織組成政府。1997年中期,兩黨為爭奪副議長職位發生爭吵。最終導致大選提前舉行。1997年12月12日舉行大選,但選舉結果與1994年相同。經過長期談判,阿魯巴人民黨與阿魯巴解放組織重新合作,于1998年年中組成以簡·亨德塈J·埃曼為首的聯合政府。Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Tico CROES]; Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [leader NA]; National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Consul General Barbara J. STEPHENSON

embassy:  J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao

mailing address:  P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao

telephone:  [599] (9) 461-3066

FAX:  [599] (9) 461-6489
Flag description: blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner
Aruba    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: 90年代,經濟增長穩定有力,主要依靠石油冶煉(包括石油轉運和石油產品)和旅游業。
國內生產總值(1999年):18.22億美元。
人均國內生產總值(1997年):18075美元。
國內生產總值增長率(1999年):3%。
貨幣名稱:阿魯巴弗羅林;1弗羅林=100分。
匯率(1999年1月):1美元=179阿魯巴弗H羅林。
通貨膨脹率(1999年):2.3%。
失業率(1995年):0.5%。【財政金融】 1995年∼1996年財政收支情況如下
(單位:億荷屬安的列斯盾):
1995 1996

收入 6.03 6.45
支出 6.12 6.94
差額 -0.09 -0.49
(資料來源:1997/1998年度經濟季評)
1996年公共外債為198億美元。1996年底外匯儲備(不包括黃金)為1.8億美元,1995年黃金儲備為0256億美元。
【對外貿易】 1999年出口額14.13億美元,進口額20.05億美元。主要進口產品有礦物燃料和潤滑油、機械和運輸設備、食品、化工產品等;主要出口產品有礦物燃料和潤滑油、原材料等。主要貿易對象為美國、委內瑞拉等。
【外國援助】 外援主要依靠荷蘭。但最近兩年荷援減少。1993年荷蘭提供發展援助2300萬美元,多邊機構提供230萬美元。
【經濟團體】 阿魯巴工商會(Aruba Chamber of Commerce and Industry):成立于1930年。通訊地址:Zoutmanstraat 21,POB 140,Oranjestad。電話:(8)21566。傳真:(8)33962。會長凱珀堙]M.S.Kuiperi),執行董事蘇澤( Souza)。Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy, although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1% unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 41,501 (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining
Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1999 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $NA

expenditures:  $541 million, incling capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries: 【工業】 主要有石油提煉。目前煉油能力為14萬桶/日。輕工業僅限于產草製品、飲料和一些消費品。建有"自由工業區"。海水淡化廠可日淡化海水2080萬公升,為世界最大的海水淡化廠之一。1998年發電量6P752億度。

【旅游業】 國民經濟的支柱。該地區終年陽光充足,氣候宜人,熱帶風光獨具一格。著名的"棕櫚海濱浴場"及早期印第安人的岩洞吸引著不少的游人。旅店房間數由1986年的2358間增至1994年的6313間。1999年接待游客905266人次,其中過夜游客647437人次,游船游客257829人次。游客主要來自美國、中南美洲和歐洲。
tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 450 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 418.5 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fish
Exports: $2.2 billion (incling oil re-exports) (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities: live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment
Exports - partners: US 42%, Colombia 20%, Netherlands 12% (1999)
Imports: $2.5 billion (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, cre oil for refining and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs
Imports - partners: US 63%, Netherlands 11%, Netherlands Antilles 3%, Japan (1999)
Debt - external: $285 million (1996)
Economic aid - recipient: $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996
Currency: Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)
Currency code: AWG
Exchange rates: Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Aruba    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 電話33.000部。33,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,402 (1997)
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  more than adequate

international:  1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
Newspaper 有六家日報,主要有:《阿魯巴朋友報》,1884年創刊,荷蘭文日報,發行量11000份(包括在荷屬安的列斯);《新聞報》,英文日報,發行量8228份。
Radio broadcast stations: 有阿魯巴通訊社。荷蘭通訊社和美聯社在該島設有辦事機構。有六家廣播電臺,除一家為教和文化電臺外,其餘為商業電臺。均用荷蘭、英、西班牙、帕彼曼都語播音。
AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 50,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 阿魯巴電視臺為1963年創立的商業電視臺。1 (1997)
Televisions: 1997年有電視機20,000台。20,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .aw
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
Internet users: 4,000 (2000)
Aruba    Transportation Top of Page
Railways:  無鐵路。0 km
Highways: 公路長380公里,有全天候的公路網。1998年有小汽車37569輛,公共汽車339輛,出租車400輛,貨車734輛,其它車輛3495輛。

total:  800 km

paved:  513 km

unpaved:  287 km

note:  most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large tracts of the interior (1995)

Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: 水路交通發達,主要港口奧拉涅斯塔德可停泊遠洋輪。Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Merchant marine: 1998年有油輪475艘,游輪255艘。total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,120 GRT/3,635 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 1 (2000 est.)
Airports: 首府的貝亞特麗克絲國際機場有航為為連接美國、歐洲、中美洲、南美洲和加勒比國家。1998年航班共31468H架次。1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Aruba    Military Top of Page
Military branches: 軍事 防務由荷蘭負責。實行義務兵役制。荷蘭任命的總督為島上武裝力量總司令。荷蘭在阿魯巴駐扎海軍。Royal Dutch Navy and Marines, Coast Guard
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Aruba    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: drug-money-laundering center and transit point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe