Flag of Andorra

Andorra
安道爾

國歌

 

當地時間                                                      

 
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Map of Andorra

Andorra    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

  簡況  位於西南歐法國和西班牙交界處,為內陸國。屬山地氣候,年平均氣溫9.1℃。   安道爾是9世紀時查理曼帝國為防範摩爾人的騷擾而在西班牙邊境地帶建立的小緩衝國。1278年,法、西締結和約,對安道爾分別享有行政統治權和宗教統治權,雙方均有權任命自己的代表和接受象徵性貢金。此後數百年里,西、法兩國爭奪安道爾的衝突頻頻發生。1789年法國大革命爆發後,安中斷同法國的關係。1806年拿破侖頒佈法令,承認安的生存權,兩國關係得以恢復。此後安政局一直較穩定。198214日實行體制改革,行政權從議會改由政府行使。1993314日,安道爾全民公決通過了新憲法,成為一個主權國家。
  
 
人民生活 社會保險制度建立於19661968年間,為病人、老人和勞動者提供保險金或養老金。1994年,有醫院1所,每千人有2.2個床位,醫生132人。1995年,有電話29795部。

Andorra    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map references: Europe
Area: 面積  468平方公里。

total:  468 sq km

land:  468 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: total:  120.3 km

border countries:  France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Riu Runer 840 m

highest point:  Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use: arable land:  4%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  45%

forests and woodland:  35%

other:  16% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches
Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Hazardous Wastes

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: landlocked
Andorra    People Top of Page
Population:   人口  21984人(1995年)。

67,627 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  15.29% (male 5,425; female 4,917)

15-64 years:  72.06% (male 25,654; female 23,078)

65 years and over:  12.65% (male 4,299; female 4,254) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.17% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 10.29 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 5.41 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 6.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.11 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.01 male(s)/female

total population:  1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  83.47 years

male:  80.57 years

female:  86.57 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Andorran(s)

adjective:  Andorran
Ethnic groups: 其中安道爾人約佔21%,屬加泰羅尼亞族。外國移民中多數為西班牙人,其次為葡萄牙人和法國人。

Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)

Religions: 居民多信奉天主教。

Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: 官方語言為加泰羅尼亞語,通用法語和西班牙語。

Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Education: 6-16歲實行免費義務教育。全國有學校18所。1996/97學年在校學生共為10229人,其中3至6歲接受學前教育的人數為2150人,7至15歲的學生為5424人,16歲以上的學生為2655人。
Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  100%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%
Andorra    Government Top of Page
Country name: 安道爾公國
The Principality of Andorra

conventional long form:  Principality of Andorra

conventional short form:  Andorra

local long form:  Principat d'Andorra

local short form:  Andorra

Government type: 【政府】現政府為自由聯盟一黨政府。政府主要成員有:首相馬克·福爾內(Marc Forne)、外交大臣阿爾韋特·平塔特(Albert Pintat)、財政大臣蘇薩格納·阿拉桑斯(Susagna Arasanz)(女)、經濟大臣恩里克·卡薩德瓦利(Enric Casadevall)、內政大臣柳易斯·蒙塔尼亞(Lluis Montanya)、衛生和福利大臣何塞普·戈伊科切亞(Josep M. Goicoechea)。

parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital:  首都  安道爾城(Andorra la Vella)

Andorra la Vella

Politics: 政治  1993年12月安首次舉行議會選舉,由里瓦斯·雷格領導的全國民主聯盟在選舉中獲得相對多數並於1994年初組閣。1994年11月政府提出設立增稅方案,遭到議會以自由聯盟領導人馬克·福爾內為首的多數委員的反對並被彈劾下臺。12月,議會的主要政黨經過協商,同意由馬克·福爾內擔任首相並組建新政府。福爾內政府作為少數黨聯盟在議會中倍受牽制。1996年末,福爾內政府因提出經濟開放和銀行改革與反對黨爭執不下,最大的反對黨全國民主聯盟也提出彈劾,要求政府下臺。在此情況下,福爾內首相決定解散議會,並於1997年2月16日提前舉行議會選舉。在選舉中,福爾內領導的自由聯盟大獲全勝,贏得議會28個席位中的16席,最大的反對黨全國民主聯盟僅獲6席。4月初,福爾內組成新政府。福爾內就任後,積極推動政治穩定和經濟多元化,安政局趨於穩定。  
Administrative divisions: 【行政區劃】全國劃為7個行政區:安道爾城(Andorra la Vella)、卡尼略(Canillo)、馬薩納(Massana)、聖胡利婭-德洛里亞(Sant Julia de Loria)、恩坎普(Encamp)、萊塞斯卡爾德-恩戈爾達(Les Escaldes-Engordany)和奧爾迪諾(Ordino)。

7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France and Spain)
National holiday: 重要節日    國慶節: 9月8日

Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution: 【憲法】安道爾新憲法規定,法國總統和西班牙塞奧-德烏赫爾地方主教同為國家元首,國家主權屬於人民。實行行政、立法和司法三權分立。

Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 【司法機構】 領導機構為司法高等理事會,由5名成員組成,任期6年。司法系統包括初級法院、中級法院和高級法院。另設憲法法院。

chief of state:  French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)

head of government:  Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994)

cabinet:  Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president

elections:  Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results:  Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - 64%

Legislative branch: 【議會】一院制,稱總委員會,行使立法權。總委員會由普選產生,共28名委員,其中14名委員系由全國選舉產生,其餘由全國7個行政區各選2名,任期4年,每2年改選半數。本屆總委員會於1997年3月11日產生。議長費朗塞斯克·阿雷尼·卡薩爾(Francesc Areny Casal),自由聯盟黨人。席位分配情況如下:
自由聯盟               16
全國民主聯盟   6
全國民主促進會           2
新民主黨              2
奧地諾聯盟 2        

unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA February 2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%, ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party - UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Political parties and leaders:  國家元首  法國總統雅克·希拉克(Jacques Chirac)和西班牙塞奧德烏赫爾地方主教胡安·馬爾迪·阿拉尼斯(Juan Marti Alanis)同為國家元首,稱為兩大公。

【政黨】在議會中擁有席位的有以下5個政黨:
自由聯盟(Unio Liberal), 成立於1993年,現為執政黨。 領導人馬克·福爾內(Marc Forne)。
   全國民主聯盟 (Agrupament Nacional Democratic), 成立於1979年,前身為安道爾民主黨。現為最大的反對黨,領導人拉迪斯拉烏·巴羅(Ladislau Baro)。
新民主黨(Nova Democracia), 成立於1993年。領導人豪梅·巴托梅烏(Jaume Bartomeu)。
  全國民主促進會(Iniciativa Democratica Nacional), 成立於1993年。 領導人比森克·馬特烏(Vicenc Mateu)。
奧地諾聯盟(Unio Parroquial de Ordino)。

Liberal Union or UL [Marc Forne MOLNE] (renamed Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA); National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLA]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU Cassany]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO Coma]

note:  there are two other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CCC, CE, ECE, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador (vacant)

chancery:  2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017

telephone:  [1] (212) 750-8064

FAX:  [1] (212) 750-6630
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705
Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Andorra    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: 經濟 安為傳統的農業國。60年代前,居民主要從事畜牧業和農業,後轉向商業和旅遊業。主要農產品有馬鈴薯和煙草等。畜牧業以牛、羊為主。主要礦藏有鐵、明礬和鉛。工業以香煙製造為主,其次有紡織、皮革、木材和食品加工。森林面積17915公頃,佔全國面積37%,歸國家所有。水力資源豐富,利用高山融雪建了許多小水電站,可滿足全國用電1/4的需要,其餘從法國和西班牙進口。商業和旅遊是國家收入的主要來源。金融業的發展為經濟注入了新的活力。1997年,從事第一產業的人佔就業人口的0.79%,從事第二產業的人口佔22.15%,從事第三產業的人口佔77.6%。1997年國內生產總值為11.9億美元,人均收入約15000美元。    

安道爾境內通用西班牙比塞塔和法國法郎。1991年7月1日,安道爾加入歐洲關稅同盟。安實行低稅,不征所得稅,有“無稅天堂”之稱。1993年,安有銀行7家,在全國設有53家分支機搆。
對外貿易的主要夥伴為法國和西班牙,其次為德國、意大利、日本、荷蘭等國。1997年進口額為1570.5億比塞塔,出口額為70.4億比塞塔。主要進口產品是建築材料、香煙、電器、化妝品、汽油燃料、服裝、光學產品、各種加工食品及生活日用品,其中許多供應給外國旅遊者;主要出口產品是羊毛、牲畜、皮革、香煙、木材、黃油、奶酪。
1996年財政支出為257.95億比塞塔,收入為254.49億比塞塔。安沒有國防預算。政府收入主要來源於對進口和銀行的稅收、對石油等產品的間接稅以及通過發行郵票所得。

Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1996 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (1996 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.62% (1998)
Labor force: 30,787 salaried employees (1998)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (1998)
Unemployment rate: 0%
Budget: revenues:  $385 million

expenditures:  $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, tobacco, banking
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%
Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
Electricity - exports: NA kWh
Electricity - imports: NA kWh

note:  most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
Exports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1998)
Exports - commodities: 主要出口產品是羊毛、牲畜、皮革、香煙、木材、黃油、奶酪。

tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners: France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)
Imports: $1.077 billion (c.i.f., 1998)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, food, electricity
Imports - partners: Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: none
Currency: French franc (FRF); Spanish peseta (ESP); euro (EUR)
Currency code: FRF; ESP; EUR
Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996); Spanish pesetas per US dollar - 149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Andorra    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 32,946 (December 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 14,117 (December 1998)
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges

international:  landline circuits to France and Spain
Newspaper: 1份報紙。
Radio broadcast stations: 全國有1家電臺

AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1家電視臺

1 (1998)

Televisions: 27,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ad
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: 5,000 (2000)
Andorra    Transportation Top of Page
Railways:  安沒有鐵路,只有公路。。0 km
Highways: 1995年,註冊小汽車為35941輛,商業汽車4014輛,運輸車159輛。

total:  269 km

paved:  198 km

unpaved:  71 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: none
Airports: 有1個私人直升機機場

none (2000 est.)

Andorra    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Andorra    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Relationships - international: 對外關係  1993年安政體改革前,對外關係由西、法兩國代管,此後開始逐步建立和發展獨立的對外關係。1993年6月3日,安道爾與法國和西班牙簽署合作協議,法、西兩國宣佈承認安道爾為主權國家並同其建立外交關係。同年7月28日,安加入聯合國,以後陸續加入了國際電信聯盟、國際勞工組織、世界衛生組織、歐洲委員會等國際和地區組織。 目前安與世界上約70個國家簽有建交協議,與西班牙和法國互設使館。安道爾將發展同西班牙、法國及歐洲聯盟的關係作為其外交重點。
   【同中國的關係】  1994年6月29日,安道爾同中國正式建立大使級外交關係。
   據中國海關統計,2000年,中國與安道爾貿易額為38.1萬美元,比1999年減少33.8%。
  中國駐安道爾大使:湯永貴(駐西班牙大使兼任)。地址:C/.Arturo Soria 113,Madrid。電話:(34)915194242。
Disputes - international: none