Flag of Bermuda

Bermuda
百慕大

(overseas territory of the UK)

國歌

  Click for Civil Air Terminal, Bermuda Forecast  

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口      經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Bermuda

Bermuda    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

北大西洋西部群島,距美國東海岸的南卡羅來納州917公里。由7個主島及150餘個小島和礁群組成。年平均氣溫21℃。年平均降水量約1500毫米。1503年西班牙人胡安·百慕大首先發現該島。1684年淪為英國殖民地,是英聯邦中最早的英國殖民地。1940年3月,英美簽訂《行政協定》,美以一些舊驅逐艦為代價,租借該群島中的摩根、特克爾和聖大衛三個島嶼,為期99年。1957年英國軍隊最後撤出百慕大群島。1968年百慕大群島獲得內部自治權。

人民生活:  政府實行社會保險和養老金制度,為所有就業者提供養老金。1970年政府頒佈醫院保險法,為所有居民提供醫療保險,並為兒童提供免費醫療,為老人提供醫療補貼。1998/1999財政年度,醫療衛生和社會福利開支佔29%。1993 年有3個醫療中心,490張病床。1995年醫務人員數目共達668人,其中內外科醫生90名,牙醫48名,護士530名。

Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.

Bermuda    Geography Top of Page
Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)
Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W
Map references: North America
Area: 面積 53.3平方公里。

total:  58.8 sq km

land:  58.8 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 103 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: 年平均氣溫21℃。

subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Town Hill 76 m
Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use: arable land:  6%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  94% (55% developed, 39% rural/open space) (1997 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)
Environment - current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space
Geography - note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
Bermuda    People Top of Page
Population: 人口 62000人(1999年估計)。

63,503 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  19.4% (male 6,091; female 6,230)

15-64 years:  69.43% (male 21,783; female 22,309)

65 years and over:  11.17% (male 3,073; female 4,017) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.74% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 12.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  0.94 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.76 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 9.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  77.12 years

male:  75.04 years

female:  79.06 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Bermudian(s)

adjective:  Bermudian
Ethnic groups: 非洲後裔約佔61%,歐洲和北美人後裔佔39%。

black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions: 居民多信奉基督教。

non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 19%

Languages: 英語為官方語言和通用語。

English (official), Portuguese

Education: 【教育】公立學校為5歲∼16歲兒童提供免費義務教育,並為高等教育及教師培訓提供大量獎學金。成人文盲率僅為1.6%。1998/1999財政年度,政府在教育上的投入開支佔預算總額的31%。1997年在校學生共10533人,其中6378人在公立學校學習,3512人在私立學校就讀。現有小學18所,中學14所,特別學校5所,私立學校5所。有一所百慕大學院,大專性質,國內無大學。學生中學畢業後一般赴美國、英國或加拿大的大學深造,如學生被這些國家的名牌學校錄取,百政府將為每位學生提供獎學金。
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98%

male:  98%

female:  99% (1970 est.)
Bermuda    Government Top of Page
Country name: 百慕大群島
The Bermuda Islands

conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Bermuda

former:  Somers Islands

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK
Politics: 政治: 自1968年開始實行政黨體制起,百慕大聯合黨連續執政至1998年。1995年8月,百慕大曾就獨立問題舉行全民公決,73.6%的選民反對獨立,主張獨立的總理斯旺被迫辭職,財政部長戴維·索爾出任總理。1997年3月27日,戴維·索爾因黨內分歧辭去總理職務,後由環境部長帕梅拉·戈登繼任,成為百慕大歷史上第一位女總理。1998年11月,進步工黨在大選中獲勝上臺,簡妮菲爾·史密斯宣誓就任百慕大歷史上第一位進步工黨總理。
Government type: 【政府】本屆政府1998年10月大選後組成,主要內閣成員有:總理簡妮菲爾·史密斯(Jennifer Smith),副總理兼文化事務、發展、機會和政府事務部長泰瑞·李斯特(Terry Lister),環境、計劃和自然資源部長泰瑞·李斯特(Terry Lister),財政部長尤金·考科斯( Eugene Cox),衛生、家庭服務及住房、勞動、婦女事務部長納爾森·巴斯科姆(Nelson Bascome),勞工、內政和公共安全部長保H羅·考科斯(Paul Cox),立法事務部長兼總檢察長路易·布朗·伊文斯(Lois Brown Evans),體育、青年發展和娛樂部長丹尼斯·李斯特(Dennis Lister),通訊部長瑞勒·威布(Renee Webb),旅遊和海事服務部長戴維·艾倫(David Allen),運輸和航空服務部長艾瓦特·布朗博士(DrP Ewart Brown),公共工程和住房部長阿列克西·斯科特(Alex Scott),教育部長密爾頓·斯科特(Milton Scott)。【司法機構】設最高法院、上訴法院和三個地方法院。最高法院對一切嚴重的刑事、民事案件行使裁判權,並接受地方法院案件的上訴。上訴法院成立於1964年,職權與其他英聯邦國家的上訴法院相同。首席法官奧斯丁·沃德(Austin Ward)。上訴法院院長詹姆斯·阿斯特伍德爵士(Sir James RP Astwood)。

parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government

Capital: 首府漢密爾頓。

Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May
Constitution: 【憲法】1968年制定。1973年和1979年兩次修訂。現行憲法規定,百慕大為英國殖民地,設自治政府;總督代表英國女王,通過總督委員會掌管外事、防務和內部治安;總理由議會多數黨領袖擔任,由總督任命;其他部長由總理任命;內閣對議會負責。

8 June 1968, amended 1989

Legal system: English law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since NA June 1997)

head of government:  Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)

cabinet:  Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; governor invites leader of largest party in Parliament to form a government as premier
Legislative branch: 【議會】分參議院和為議院,任期均為五年。參議院由11人組成,3名由總督任命,總理推薦5名,反對黨領袖推薦3名,亦均由總督任命。眾議院由40人組成,普選產生。本屆議會眾議院中,百慕大聯合黨佔14席,進步工黨佔26席。

bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP 1%, independents 1%; seats by party - PLP 26, UBP 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders: 總督 約翰·索羅爾德·梅斯菲爾德(John Thorold Masefield),1997年6月任命。

【政黨】有三個政黨:
   (1)進步工黨(Progressive Labour Party):執政黨。1963年建立,左翼黨,黨員大多數為黑人。主張立即擺脫英國統治,經濟“百慕大化”。領袖弗雷德塈J·韋德(Frederick Wade)。
   (2)百慕大聯合黨(United Bermuda Party):反對黨。1964年建立。溫和的多種族右翼黨,主張各種族團結和保留附屬地位。支援自由企業制度。領袖帕梅拉·戈登(Pamela Gordon)。
   (3)民族自由黨(National Liberal Party):1985年建立,由百慕大聯合黨分裂出來的成員組成。領袖吉爾伯特·達雷爾(Gilbert Darrell)。

National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela GORDON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [Betty CHRISTOPHER]
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Consul General Lawrence D. OWEN

consulate(s) general:  Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton

mailing address:  P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520-5300

telephone:  [1] (441) 295-1342

FAX:  [1] (441) 295-1592
Flag description: red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Bermuda    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: 主要依賴旅遊、國際金融業和保險業。保險和再保險業資產超過350億美元,其規模僅次於倫敦和紐約。1998年,在百註冊的外國公司有10394多家,但只有235家外國公司在百設有辦事機構。人均國內生產總值居世界前列。近年來,百年均GDP增長率為4%。
   國內生產總值(1999年):25.48億美元。
   人均國內生產總值(1997年):36000美元。                                                 國內生產總值增長率(1999年):1.5%。
   通貨膨脹率(1997年):2.1%。

【服務業】金融服務業是第二大經濟部門。由於百慕大政局穩定,沒有外匯管制,並嚴格遵守金融保密法。該群島成為世界上最大的境外金融和商業中心之一。金融業已超過旅遊業成為百慕大外匯收入的主要來源。1997年直接從事金融服務業人員達2667人。保險業相當發達,約佔世界意外險種再投保量的1/3,1996年保險業務收入達198億百慕大元。1998年底,在百註冊的國際公司有10394家,其中大部分為保險公司,其次為商貿公司、航運集團、個人投資公司。百慕大是世界第五大船舶註冊地。ID
【旅遊業】是最主要的經濟部門,收入佔國內生產總值的32%、外匯總收入的40%。從業人口佔全國勞動力的60%。主要接待高收入遊客。近年來旅遊業不太景氣,1997年接待外國遊客562619人次,下降1.7%;旅遊總收入13.96億美元。2000年上半年旅遊業繼續下降了6%。85%的遊客來自美國,其餘的來自加拿大、西歐國家。

【財政金融】關稅、公司稅、印花稅和土地稅是政府收入的主要來源,其中關稅佔總收入的H35∼I40%。政府總支出的一半用於支付工資。 近幾年財政收支情況如下(單位:百萬百慕大元):D

       1997/1998      1998/1999

 收入          5.726               5.514
 經常性支出    5.11                 4.751  
 基本建設支出  0.456               0.713
 差額          0.16                  0.05
(資料來源:1998年度經濟季評)D
【對外貿易】幾乎所有東西完全依賴進口。進口產品的75%來自美國。主要貿易夥伴是美國、英國、義大利和加拿大。外貿歷年鉅額入超。主要進口產品為機械和運輸工具、食品、飲料、製成品和燃料等。1998年進口商品總額為6億百慕大元。出口以藥品的再出口為主,本地主要出口產品為化妝品和鮮花。近幾年進出口情況如下(單位:百萬美元):

                   1997    1998     1999

    出口額           57       33       51
    進口額           617     629     712
      差額         -560    -596    -661

(資料來源:1998年經濟季評)

Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing financial services for international firms and luxury tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms. Government economic priorities are the further strengthening of the tourist and international financial sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $33,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1%

industry:  10%

services:  89% (1995 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 35,296 (1997)
Labor force - by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)
Unemployment rate: 失業率(1996年):1.5%。

NEGL% (1995)

Budget: revenues:  $504.6 million

expenditures:  $537 million, including capital expenditures of $75 million (FY97/98)
Industries: 【工業】由於缺乏自然資源,只有船舶修理、小船製造、制藥和手工藝品等小型工業。近年來,政府積極鼓勵發展輕工業生產。1993年,工業佔國內生產總值10.2%,從業人口約佔勞動力總數的7.7%。
tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 550 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 511.5 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: 【農業】佔國內生產總值2.5%。有可耕地839英畝,主要種植蔬菜、柑桔、香蕉等。80%食品靠進口,奶、蛋基本自給。農業勞動力缺乏,僅佔就業人口總數的1.1%。

bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Exports: $56 million (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals
Exports - partners: UK 29.5%, US 9.8% (1997)
Imports: $739 million (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Imports - partners: US 34%, UK 9%, Mexico 8% (1997)
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $27.9 million (1995)
Currency: 貨幣名稱:百慕大元;1元=100分。
Bermudian dollar (BMD)
Currency code: BMD
Exchange rates: 匯率(1999年):1美元=1百慕大元。

Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Bermuda    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 1991/1992年度有電話機38460部。

52,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,980 (1996)
Newspaper: 【新聞出版】有一份日報,兩份周刊,一份月刊和一份雙月刊。《皇家日報》:晨報,發行量17500份;《百慕大太陽》:周刊,發行量15500份;《中洋新聞》:周刊,發行量14500份;《百慕大人》:畫報月刊,發行量14000份;《工人之聲》:雙月刊。
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  modern, fully automatic telephone system

international:  3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: 百慕大廣播公司經營五家廣播電臺。另有一家聖喬治廣播公司。

AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 收音機55000台

82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 百慕大廣播公司經營兩家商業電視臺,百慕大許多地方可收看有線電視節目。

3 (1997)

Televisions: 電視機36000台。

66,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bm
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20 (2000)
Internet users: 25,000 (2000)
Bermuda    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: 公路:總長約611公里。1994年註冊車輛48677輛,包括私人小汽車20727輛,商業用車3389輛。為緩解交通擁擠狀況,每個家庭限購一輛客用汽車。
   
total:  225 km

paved:  225 km

unpaved:  0 km

note:  in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that are privately owned (1997)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: 水運:有三個主要港口:漢密爾頓、聖喬治和愛爾蘭島自由港。1993年有商船106艘。

Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine: total:  105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,836,538 GRT/9,728,045 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 27, cargo 4, container 15, liquefied gas 7, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 16, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 3

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Canada 10, Hong Kong 10, Japan 1, Nigeria 4, Saudi Arabia 1, Sweden 3, Switzerland 2, UK 10, US 7 (2000 est.)
Airports: 空運:肯德利費爾德是惟一的國際機場。有通往英國、美國的航線。1992年客運總量7585941人次,貨運量600噸,空運郵件668噸。

1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Bermuda    Military Top of Page
Military branches: 軍事事務原由北大西洋公約組織管理。美國在百設有軍事基地。美國、英國、加拿大三國駐百軍事人員達3000人。現美國在百的軍事基地已撤銷。百地方國防軍有一個團,約700人。

Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
Bermuda    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Relationships - international: 對外關係:  外交由英國掌管。百慕大作為英國代表團的成員參加國際勞工組織、世界衛生組織和其他國際組織。美國在百慕大派有總領事。
Disputes - international: none