Flag of Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
馬爾維納斯群島

(overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

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Map of Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

位於阿根廷南端以東的南大西洋水域,西距阿根廷500多公里。全境由索萊達(東福克蘭)、大馬爾維納(西福克蘭)兩大主島和200多個小島組成。海岸曲折,地形複雜,群島以北部兩條東西走向的山脈為主,最高峰達705米。島上多丘陵,河流短小流緩。氣候寒濕,年平均氣溫5.6℃。年均降水量625毫米,一年中雨雪天氣多達250天左右。
阿歷史學家認為馬島是1520年由葡萄牙人發現的。英國學者則認為英國航海家戴維斯1592年最先發現馬島。1690年,英國船長約翰·斯特朗最先在西島登陸。十八世紀中葉,法、英先後在兩個主島上建立居民點並有少量駐軍。1770年西班牙開始管轄群島,但英國聲稱仍對群島擁有主權。1820年,即阿根廷從西班牙殖民統治下獲得獨立四年後,阿宣佈馬島為其領土不可分割的一部分。英國以最早發現為由聲稱馬島屬英國,並於1833年1月武裝佔領馬島,阿駐島總督被迫撤出。此後兩國一直對馬島主權存有爭議。1966年,阿、英就馬島歸屬問題開始談判。1981年兩國談判破裂。 1982年4月2日,阿政府派兵佔領馬島,英國宣佈與阿斷交並派出特遣艦隊,“馬島戰爭”爆發。6月14日,英軍攻佔馬島首府,駐島阿軍宣佈投降。 戰後,馬島開始使用自己的憲法、貨幣、旗幟和國徽,以體現島民“自治”。英國拒絕討論馬島主權問題。阿曾提出按“香港租借”方式解決馬島問題和向馬島派遣聯合國和平部隊等建議,均遭英拒絕。1986年,英宣佈馬島周圍150海里為“漁業保護區”, 並於1993年將“保護區”擴大為200海里,阿方就此提出強烈抗議。1990年,經多次談判,阿英達成複交協定。1994年,阿將對馬島的主權要求寫入新修改的憲法中。

島上電力自給自足,年發電1200萬千瓦時。島民在大部分醫療專案上享有免費待遇,但危重病人需送往烏拉圭等國救治。

Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592, the first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later in 1690, and the first settlement (French) was not established until 1764. The colony was turned over to Spain two years later and the islands have since been the subject of a territorial dispute, first between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. The UK asserted its claim to the islands by establishing a naval garrison there in 1833. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Geography Top of Page
Location: 位於阿根廷南端以東的南大西洋水域

Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W
Map references: South America
Area: 面積:  12173平方公里。

total:  12,173 sq km

land:  12,173 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 1,288 km
Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200 NM

exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: 氣候寒濕,年平均氣溫5.6℃。年均降水量625毫米,一年中雨雪天氣多達250天左右。

cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mount Usborne 705 m
Natural resources: 馬島蘊藏有豐富的泥炭以及鉛、煤、鐵、銀等礦藏資源,近海有石油和天然氣。

fish, wildlife

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  99%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  1% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    People Top of Page
Population: 人口:  2826人(2000年)。

2,895 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  NA%

15-64 years:  NA%

65 years and over:  NA%
Population growth rate: 2.43% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population
Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  NA years

male:  NA years

female:  NA years
Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Falkland Islander(s)

adjective:  Falkland Island
Ethnic groups: 97%是英國人後裔。

British

Religions: 居民中80%信奉基督教。

primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: 講英語。

English

Education: 文化教育:  首府斯坦利港(阿根廷港)設有小學和初級中學,每年選送學生去英國學習。
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Government Top of Page
Country name: 馬爾維納斯群島(Islas Malvinas)
英國稱福克蘭群島(Falkland Islands)

conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina
Politics: 政治:  1992年,聯合國非殖民化委員會一致通過由智利和委內瑞拉提出的決議案,再次要求阿英加緊對話,和平解決馬島爭端。近幾年來,阿英在馬島主權和地區經濟合作方面一直有爭議,雙方進行了多次談判。1995年9月,阿英達成在馬島水域勘探、開採石油的協定。1997年9月,馬島總督拉爾夫拒絕阿外長迪特利亞訪島要求。1998年10月,梅內姆總統訪問英國,這是馬島戰爭以來阿英兩國第一次元首訪問。1999年3月,英國王儲查爾斯正式訪問阿根廷。同年,雙方在關於阿恢復與馬島直航、阿公民持本國護照赴馬島、石油開採、打擊非法捕魚、通訊、巡邏等領域達成協定。11月,阿英兩國海軍在南大西洋舉行馬島交戰以來首次聯合軍事演習,以提高兩軍執行海上搜尋和救援任務的能力,並加強兩軍間的合作。
 德拉魯阿總統上臺後,阿新政府重申對馬島享有主權,呼籲國際社會敦促英與阿重開馬島主權談判,強調將通過和平途徑解決爭端,並表示將依據國際法尊重島上居民的利益和生活方式。2000年1月,阿外長賈瓦里尼在瑞典同英國外交大臣庫克會晤,雙方決定繼續就馬島問題、捕魚等問題進行磋商。3月8∼9日,英國國防大臣胡恩訪阿。雙方討論了島上排雷、建烈士紀念碑等問題,並一致同意兩國海軍在馬島水域舉行聯合演習,但回避了馬島主權歸屬這一敏感問題。7月27∼28日,阿英兩國在倫敦舉行關於馬島水域石油開採問題的會議。阿表示反對任何單方面針對該水域石油資源勘探開發的招標活動。9月,德拉魯阿總統在出席聯合國千年首腦會議期間再次重申阿對馬島的主權要求,賈瓦里尼外長呼籲英國政府尋求和平解決馬島主權爭端的辦法。11月,英國拒絕支援阿根廷成為南極條約秘書處所在地和阿在島上修建陣亡將士紀念碑的要求。英表示,英將優先考慮增加飛往馬島的航班、漁業、石油勘探、環保、排雷等議題,但不會在未取得馬島居民共識的前提下做出政治決定。
 阿根廷對馬島的主權要求得到了世界上大多數國家的支援。自1983年起,在英國不參加的情況下,聯合國非殖民化委員會會議每年均以協商一致的方式通過關於馬島主權的決議,敦促英國政府儘快同阿政府進行談判。1997年,第七屆伊比利亞美洲首腦會議發表最後聲明,呼籲阿英依照尊重領土完整原則儘早就馬島主權重開談判。1999年,聯合國秘書長安南表示,將盡一切努力促成阿英談判,以儘快結束馬島“殖民地狀態”。同年,古巴國務委員會主席卡斯楚與來訪的委內瑞拉總統查韋斯聯合舉行記者招待會,表示全拉美國家都支援阿根廷收復馬島主權。
Government type: NA
Capital: 首府:  斯坦利港(Port Stanley),阿根廷稱阿根廷港(Puerto Argentino),人口1643人(不包括軍隊,1991年)。

Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Constitution: 3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

head of government:  Governor Donald LAMONT (since NA May 1999); Chief Executive A. M. GURR (since NA); Financial Secretary D. F. HOWATT (since NA)

cabinet:  Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats - 2 ex officio, 8 elected by popular vote, members serve four-year terms) presided over by the governor

elections:  last held 9 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2001)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 8
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions)
Political parties and leaders: 總督:  亞歷山大·唐納德·拉蒙德(ALEXANDER DONALD LAMONT)。1999年1月被英國政府任命為駐馬島第31任新總督。

none; all independents

Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ICFTU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: 經濟:  馬島蘊藏有豐富的泥炭以及鉛、煤、鐵、銀等礦藏資源,近海有石油和天然氣。島上95%的勞動力從事畜牧業和漁業,有綿羊70萬隻,牛1萬頭,馬5000匹。工業有羊毛和漁品加工業。馬島另一重要 工業是發行郵票和紀念幣。1996年國民生產總值為7500萬美元。自1987年起,馬島當局向在群島專屬區捕魚的外國漁船徵收捕魚特許稅,特許稅年均收入約4000萬美元。除國防支出仍由英國負擔外,馬島當局已實現財政自理,1997年∼1998年,馬島財政收入為6610萬美元,財政支出6680萬美元,赤字70萬美元。英國每年提供1億美元用於馬島防禦。“馬爾維納斯公司”經營全島的進出口貿易,1995年馬島出口額為760萬美元,進口2470萬美元。主要出口品為羊毛、皮革;進口日用必需品和各類生 活資料。主要貿易物件是英國和日本。

The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of economic activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support the island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of the fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $52 million (FY95/96 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1% (FY95/96 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,000 (FY95/96 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1998)
Labor force: 1,100 (est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding and fishing)
Unemployment rate: full employment; labor shortage
Budget: revenues:  $66.2 million

expenditures:  $67.9 million, including capital expenditures of $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)
Industries: 工業有羊毛和漁品加工業。馬島另一重要工業是發行郵票和紀念幣。

wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins

Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 12 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 11.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: 島上95%的勞動力從事畜牧業和漁業,有綿羊70萬隻,牛1萬頭,馬5000匹。

fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products

Exports: 1995年馬島出口額為760萬美元。

$7.6 million (1995)

Exports - commodities: 主要出口品為羊毛、皮革。

wool, hides, meat

Exports - partners: 主要貿易物件是英國和日本。

UK, Japan, Chile, NZ

Imports: 1995年馬島進口2470萬美元。

$24.7 million (1995)

Imports - commodities: 進口日用必需品和各類生活資料。

fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing

Imports - partners: 主要貿易物件是英國和日本。

UK, Japan, Chile, NZ

Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: 英國每年提供1億美元用於馬島防禦。

$1.7 million (1995)

Currency: 馬島現行貨幣為“福克蘭鎊”,與英鎊等值。

Falkland pound (FKP)

Currency code: FKP
Exchange rates: 馬島“福克蘭鎊”與英鎊等值。

Falkland pounds per US dollar - 0.6764 (January 2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: NA
Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 1,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 島上建有2座電視臺。

2 (operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service) (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .fk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: NA
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: 公路總長348公里。

total:  440 km

paved:  50 km

unpaved:  390 km

Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: 主要港口為斯坦利港。

Stanley

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 共建有5座中小型機場,智利航空公司有航班飛往馬島。

5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  3

under 914 m:  3 (2000 est.)
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Military Top of Page
Military branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: claimed by Argentina