Flag of French Guiana

French Guiana
法屬圭亞那

(overseas department of France)

國歌

    Click for Cayenne, French Guiana Forecast  

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Map of French Guiana

French Guiana    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

位於南美洲東北部赤道附近,東南與巴西接壤,西與蘇里南毗鄰,北臨大西洋。海岸線長320公里。屬熱帶雨林氣候,平均氣溫27℃17世紀初法國開始侵入。後英、荷、法和葡相互爭奪此地,直到1816年最後歸屬法國。1946年法國宣佈法屬圭亞那為法國的“海外省”。1977年成為法國的一個大區。D DD

人民生活:  實行與法國相似的社會保險制度。199611日起實行與法國一樣的福利工資和法定最低工資。1997年有兩所醫院,一個醫療衛生中心和3個私人診所。1998年有醫生223人,牙醫41人,接生員48人;22個社區各有一個保健中心。1998年擁有9.6萬台收音機,96年有2.7萬台電視機。1994年有電話線4萬條。
D

【科研機構】1964年在庫魯地區建成火箭發射中心。歐洲宇航局在此從事阿麗亞娜火箭的發射業務。ID

First settled by the French in 1604, French Guiana was the site of notorious penal settlements until 1951. The European Space Agency launches its communication satellites from Kourou.

French Guiana    Geography Top of Page
Location: 位於南美洲東北部赤道附近。

Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W
Map references: South America
Area: 面積:  91000平方公里。

total:  91,000 sq km

land:  89,150 sq km

water:  1,850 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries: total:  1,183 km

border countries:  Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km
Coastline: 海岸線長320公里。

378 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: 屬熱帶雨林氣候,平均氣溫27℃。

tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m
Natural resources: 【資源】礦產主要有鋁礬土、高嶺土和金礦等。森林覆蓋率達90%,擁有熱帶特有的各種硬木及可提煉香精的花梨木。D

bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  90%

other:  10% (1996 est.)
Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe thunderstorms; flooding
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: mostly an unsettled wilderness
French Guiana    People Top of Page
Population: 人口:  172605人(2000年中官方估計)。

177,562 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  30.47% (male 27,669; female 26,428)

15-64 years:  64.05% (male 61,457; female 52,266)

65 years and over:  5.48% (male 4,937; female 4,805) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.74% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 2000年人口出生率為2.24%。D

22.02 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 2000年人口死亡率為0.48%。D

4.77 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.18 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.03 male(s)/female

total population:  1.13 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 13.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  76.3 years

male:  72.97 years

female:  79.79 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.17 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  French Guianese (singular and plural)

adjective:  French Guianese
Ethnic groups: 43%為克里奧爾人後裔,14%為華人,11%為法國人,8%為海地人,此外還有印第安人、越南人等。

【華人華僑】中國自1898年開始移民,現有華僑約5000人,其中約有1500人已獲法國國籍,其餘大部分均取得長期或短期居留權。多數為廣東客家人,來自東莞、寶安、惠州等地,約有400人來自浙江的金華、青田一帶。主要從事食品、百貨、餐館等職業,約有400多家。旅法圭華僑人數約佔全省3%,稅收佔全法圭總額25%。D
【主要華人社團】卡宴華僑公所:歷史最悠久、規模最大的一個華僑社團。成立於1956年,理事會為其領導機構。目前按期繳納會費的固定會員有347個,但實際會員為4500人。

black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: 77.6%的居民信奉天主教,4%信奉基督教新教。

Roman Catholic

Languages: 法語為官方語言,也講克里奧爾語。

French

Education: 【教育】與法國教育制度相同,實行10年免費義務教育。1982年成人文盲率為17%。1995/1996學年註冊學生人數如下:學齡前學校42所,9098學生;小學72所,802名教師,17006學生;中學1085教師,15989學生;高中427學生。
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  83%

male:  84%

female:  82% (1982 est.)
French Guiana    Government Top of Page
Country name: 法屬圭亞那
Guyane Francaise

conventional long form:  Department of Guiana

conventional short form:  French Guiana

local long form:  none

local short form:  Guyane

Dependency status: overseas department of France
Politics: 政治:  1998年3月舉行了省議會和地方議會選舉,左翼的圭亞那社會黨在省議會中獲5個議席,在地方議會中獲11席。D
Government type: 【政府】 法國委任的省長為最高行政負責人。政府由省長、兩議會議長和在法國議會中的議員和參議員組成(法圭在法國國民議會中有兩名議員,在參議院中有一名議員)。D

NA

Capital: 首府:  卡宴,人口41067(1990年)。D

Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)
Independence: none (overseas department of France)
National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)
Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: French legal system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: 【司法機構】設在馬提尼克島的法蘭西堡法院為法屬圭亞那、瓜德羅普和馬提尼克的最高級法院。法屬圭亞那有一地方法院,法院院長弗朗索瓦·克里(Francois Creee)。D

chief of state:  President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Dominique VIAN (since NA January 1997)

head of government:  President of the General Council Andre LECANTE (since NA March 1998); President of the Regional Council Antoine KARAM (since 22 March 1992)

cabinet:  NA

elections:  French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; presidents of the General and Regional Councils are appointed by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: 【議會】 有兩個議會,即省議會和地方議會。前者有議席19個,後者為31席。兩議會均由普選產生,任期六年。省議會議長安德烈·萊坎特(Andre Lecante),地方議會議長安托尼·卡拉姆(Antoine Karam)。

unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and a unicameral Regional Council or Conseil Regional (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections:  General Council - last held NA March 2000 (next to be held NA 2006); Regional Council - last held 15 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:  General Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Regional Council - percent of vote by party - PS 28.28%, various left parties 22.56%, RPR 15.91%, independents 8.6%, Walwari Committee 6%; seats by party - PS 11, various left parties 9, RPR 6, independents 3, Walwari Committee 2

note:  one seat was elected to the French Senate on 27 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2007); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; 2 seats were elected to the French National Assembly on 25 May - 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1, PSG 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel (highest local court based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)
Political parties and leaders: 省長:  多米尼克·維安(Dominique Vian)。D

【政黨】 主要有:
(1)圭亞那民主行動黨(Action Democrate Guiana),領導人安德烈·萊坎特(Andre Lecante)。
(2)圭亞那社會黨(Parti Socialiste Guyanais):第一大黨,1956年成立。總書記安托尼·卡拉姆(Antoine Karam)。(3)圭亞那民主力量(Forces Democratiques Guyanaise):1989年從圭亞那社會黨中分出。領導人喬治·奧迪利(Georges Othily)。D
(4)保衛共和聯盟(Rassemblement pour la Republique):1946年成立。右翼黨派。主席羅蘭·賀文茲(Roland Ho Wen Sze)。D
(5)法國民主聯盟(Union pour la Democratie Francaise):1979年成立,中間派。主席周希恩(R Chow Chine)。D

Guianese Socialist Party or PSG [Antoine KARAM]; Guyana Democratic Forces or FDG [Georges OTHILY]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Roland HO-WEN-SZE]; Socialist Party or PS [Pierre RIBARDIERE] (may be a subset of PSG); Walwari Committee [Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of France)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of France)
Flag description: the flag of France is used
French Guiana    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: 經濟:  由於受地理位置限制、基礎設施陳舊和缺少熟練工人等原因,經濟發展受阻。經濟以林業和漁業為主,工業很少。經濟發展主要依靠法國援助,大部分製成品、食品和能源需進口,林業、漁業和旅遊業方面具有較大的發展潛力。失業是一個較大的社會問題。D
國內生產總值(1998年):100萬美元。D
人均國內生產總值(1998年):6000美元。D
國內生產總值平均增長率(1985年∼1989年):3.6%。DD
通貨膨脹率(1997年):1.7%。DD
(資料來源:1999/2000年度經濟季評、美國中情局網站)

【對外貿易】主要進口食品、石油和石油製品、機械和交通工具、製成品等;出口魚蝦、木材、大米等。主要貿易物件是法國、美國、日本、德國、特立尼達和多巴哥等國。1997年進口總額6.25億美元,出口總額1.55億美元,貿易逆差4.7億美元。D
【經濟團體】工商會(Chambre de Departementale de Commerce et d’Industrie)通訊地址:Hotel Consulairre, place de I’Esplanade BP 49,97321 Cedes,Guyanne Francaise。電話:299600,網址:www.guyane.cci.fr。會長瓊-皮埃爾·普雷沃特(Jean Pierre Prevot)。

【旅遊業】 旅遊業正在發展中。熱帶自然風光和內地印第安人村落對遊客有很大吸引力。1999年接待遊客68211人次,1993年有旅館房間1311間。

The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry which provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops is limited to the coastal area, where the population is largely concentrated; rice and manioc are the major crops. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly among younger workers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1998 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1998 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1992)
Labor force: 58,800 (1997)
Labor force - by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)
Unemployment rate: 失業率:(1997年):23%。

21.4% (1998)

Budget: revenues:  $225 million

expenditures:  $390 million, including capital expenditures of $105 million (1996)
Industries: 【工業】不發達。1996年產朗姆酒26萬升,98年發電量4.3億千瓦時。1998年產黃金2.8噸,1996年黃金出口佔出口收入總額的21.5%。

construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 440 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 409.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: 【農林牧漁業】農業生產集中在沿海地區,產值佔GDP的11.4%。主要農作物有水稻、木薯、甘蔗、蔬菜等。1998年產甘蔗5000噸,木薯10000噸,大米31000噸(國際糧農組織估計)。1997年產原木13.2萬立方米,木材5.1萬立方米。D
1998年9月畜禽存欄數:牛9000頭,豬110000頭,綿羊3000只,山羊1000只。產肉1957噸,蛋900萬個。D
60年代以來漁業尤其是捕蝦業發展較快。1997年捕魚3600噸,捕蝦4102噸。1996年漁業產品出口佔出口總額的20.4%。D

rice, manioc (tapioca), sugar, cocoa, vegetables, bananas; cattle, pigs, poultry

Exports: 1997年出口總額1.55億美元。

$155 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: 主要出口魚蝦、木材、大米等。

shrimp, timber, gold, rum, rosewood essence, clothing

Exports - partners: 主要貿易物件是法國、美國、日本、德國、特立尼達和多巴哥等國。

France 62%, Switzerland 7%, US 2% (1997)

Imports: 1997年進口總額6.25億美元。

$625 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: 主要進口食品、石油和石油製品、機械和交通工具、製成品等。

food (grains, processed meat), machinery and transport equipment, fuels and chemicals

Imports - partners: 主要貿易物件是法國、美國、日本、德國、特立尼達和多巴哥等國。

France 52%, US 14%, Trinidad and Tobago 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $1.2 billion (1988)
Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: 貨幣名稱:法國法郎。D

French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; EUR
Exchange rates: 匯率(2000年):1美元=7.02法郎。

Euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year
French Guiana    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 1994年有電話線4萬條。

47,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  fair open wire and microwave radio relay system

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Newspaper: 【新聞出版】《法屬圭亞那報》:日報,發行量5500份;《圭亞那報》:日報,發行量1000份。
Radio broadcast stations: 卡宴廣播電臺每周播音126小時。托特莫諾廣播電臺每日播音24小時。諾曼廣播電臺用當地土語廣播。均為私人電臺。

AM 2, FM 14 (including 6 repeaters), shortwave 6 (including 5 repeaters) (1998)

Radios: 1998年擁有9.6萬台收音機。

104,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 法國海外廣播電視公司:每天播音16小時,每周播放電視節目32小時。

3 (plus eight low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1996年有2.7萬台電視機。

30,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .gf
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 2,000 (2000)
French Guiana    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 無鐵路。DD

0 km (1995)

Highways: 公路:總長1817公里。1993年有小汽車29100輛,商業車10600輛。

total:  1,817 km

paved:  817 km

unpaved:  1,000 km (1998)

Waterways: 水運:內河航運線總長3760公里。1992年國際港裝貨量7.3萬噸,卸貨量44.7萬噸。

3,300 km navigable by native craft

note:  460 km navigable by small oceangoing vessels and coastal and river steamers

Ports and harbors: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 空運:首府卡宴有一個國際機場,可起降巨型噴氣飛機。1992年客運量324100人次,貨運量5472噸。

11 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  4

over 3,047 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  2

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  7

914 to 1,523 m:  2

under 914 m:  5 (2000 est.)
French Guiana    Military Top of Page
Military branches: 軍事:  1999年8月1日,法國在法圭駐軍2200人,另有憲兵600人。

French Forces, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  49,495 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:  32,052 (2001 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France
French Guiana    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)
Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe