Flag of Baker Island

Baker Island
豪蘭和貝克群島

(territory of the US)

國歌

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口   政治   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Baker Island

Baker Island    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

豪蘭和貝克群島(Howland and Baker Islands)由兩個無瀉湖的珊瑚礁島組成,西南距夏威夷2575公里,是太平洋中部靠近赤道處的珊瑚環礁,為美國無建制領土。兩島均為赤道氣候,少雨,多風。地勢低平,四周有暗礁環繞。無淡水資源。豪蘭島長2.4公里,寬0.9公里,陸地面積1.6平方公里,海岸線長6.4公里,陸地最高點為海平面以上3米。貝克島長1.6公里,寬1.1公里,陸地面積1.4平方公里,海岸線長4.8公里,陸地最高點為海平面以上8米。
19
世紀下半葉,美國人和英國人開始在此採集鳥糞。1935年美國人在豪蘭島和貝克島上建立居民點(二戰期間撤廢),並在貝克島修建了一座燈塔。翌年,以上兩島劃歸美國內政部管轄。1937年美國在豪蘭島修建了一個簡易機場,現已不用。1942年,島上的美國人在遭日軍攻擊後撤離。1943年美軍在貝克島建立了空軍基地,戰後廢棄。1990年,美國會曾立法建議將兩島置於夏威夷州管轄。現在兩島是美國國家野生動物保護體系的一部分,由美國內政部的魚類和野生動物服務組織負責管理。無常住居民,一般只對科學家和研究人員開放。
豪蘭島為夏威夷和澳大利亞之間的航空中間站。美國海岸警衛隊每年巡視兩島。

The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle of the west coast.

Baker Island    Geography Top of Page
Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W
Map references: Oceania
Area: total:  1.4 sq km

land:  1.4 sq km

water:  0 sq km
Area - comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 4.8 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: 兩島均為赤道氣候,少雨,多風。

equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location 8 m
Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100%
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)
Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources
Geography - note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Baker Island    People Top of Page
Population: uninhabited

note:  American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2001 est.)
Baker Island    Government Top of Page
Country name: 豪蘭和貝克群島
Howland and Baker Islands

conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Baker Island

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Flag description: the flag of the US is used
Baker Island    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: no economic activity
Baker Island    Transportation Top of Page
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast
Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with vegetation and unusable (2000 est.)
Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast
Baker Island    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard
Baker Island    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none