Flag of Greenland

Greenland
格陵蘭

(part of the Kingdom of Denmark)

國歌

    Click for Mittarfik Nuuk, Greenland Forecast  

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口   政治   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Greenland

Greenland    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

世界第一大島。位於北美洲東北部。全島約4/5地區在北極圈以內。海岸線長4.4萬公里。年平均氣溫在0 ℃以下,最低可達-70 ℃。
   
公元前約1000年,加拿大北部因紐特人遷至格北部定居,以狩獵為生。1261年成為挪威殖民地。1380年,丹麥征服挪威成立聯盟,格陵蘭轉由丹麥管轄。1933年,海牙國際法庭將格判歸丹麥。1953年,丹麥憲法規定格陵蘭為丹一個州。1973年隨丹麥一起加入歐共體。197951日正式實行內部自治。 1985年退出歐共體。
:   設有自治議會和自治政府。稅收、地下資源、教育、文化和社會福利等事務由自治政府負責;防務、外交、司法和貨幣等由丹麥政府掌管。總督由丹麥君主任命。在丹麥議會中有2個議席。有自己的旗幟和郵票。19992月舉行大選,組成前進黨、工人黨聯合政府。

人民生活:   1998年有醫院、醫療所18所,醫生84人,牙醫33人,護理人員495人,病床441張。物價指數(1995年=100)1999年=103。工資指數(1995年=100)1999年=103

The world's largest island, about 84% ice-capped, Greenland was granted self-government in 1978 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs.

Greenland    Geography Top of Page
Location: 位於北美洲東北部。

Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada

Geographic coordinates: 72 00 N, 40 00 W
Map references: Arctic Region
Area: 面積:  217.56萬平方公里。

total:  2,175,600 sq km

land:  2,175,600 sq km (341,700 sq km ice-free, 1,833,900 sq km ice-covered) (est.)

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 海岸線長4.4萬公里。

44,087 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

territorial sea:  3 NM
Climate: 年平均氣溫在0 ℃以下,最低可達-70 ℃。

arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Gunnbjorn 3,700 m
Natural resources: 【資源與採礦業】 地下蘊藏鉛、鋅、冰晶石、鉻、煤、鎢、鉬、鐵、鎳、鈾和石油等資源,其中冰晶石已基本采完。1985年生產鋅礦石11.9萬噸,鉛礦石2.6萬噸。1987年至今無採礦活動。1989年在該島東部發現金礦,初步探明儲量價值約12億克朗,每年可采12噸。

zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  1%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  99% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Environment - current issues: protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
Geography - note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap
Greenland    People Top of Page
Population: 人口:  5.6萬(1999年1月)。

56,352 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  26.69% (male 7,649; female 7,392)

15-64 years:  67.87% (male 20,868; female 17,376)

65 years and over:  5.44% (male 1,385; female 1,682) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.06% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 16.52 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: -8.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.2 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.82 male(s)/female

total population:  1.13 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 17.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  68.37 years

male:  64.82 years

female:  72.01 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 100 (1999)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Greenlander(s)

adjective:  Greenlandic
Ethnic groups: 大多數為格陵蘭人,14%來自其他北歐國家(主要是丹麥)。

Greenlander 88% (Inuit and Greenland-born whites), Danish and others 12% (January 2000)

Religions: 大多數居民信奉基督教路德宗。

Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: 語言為格陵蘭語和丹麥語(官方語)。

Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English

Education:

 

文化教育:  實行九年制義務免費教育,教學用語為格陵蘭語,丹麥語為學生必修課目。1998/99年度有中小學88所,在校學生11087名,教師1047人,其中格陵蘭當地教師824人。有職業學校10所,貿易學院1所,教育學院1所,小型大學(格陵蘭大學)1個。絕大多數學生到丹麥高等院校接受高等教育。
Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  NA%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%

note:  similar to Denmark proper
Greenland    Government Top of Page
Country name: 格陵蘭
conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Greenland

local long form:  none

local short form:  Kalaallit Nunaat
Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979
Government type: 【政府】 本屆自治政府於1999年2月由前進黨和工人黨組成,共有7名成員:主席約納特·莫茲菲特(Jonathan Motzfeldt,前進黨);約瑟夫·莫茲菲特(Josef Motzfeldt,工人黨),主管經濟和貿易;埃弗爾德·雅可布森(Alfred Jakobsen,工人黨),負責衛生、環境和宗教事務;本納迪克特·托斯坦松(Benedikte Thorsteinsson,前進黨),負責社會和勞工事務;帕維阿克·海爾曼(Paaviaaraq Heilmann,前進黨),負責商業;瑪麗安娜·彥森(Marianne Jensen,女,前進黨)負責文化、教育和科研;彼得·昆沃爾特·薩繆爾松(Peter Groenvold Samuelsson,前進黨),負責住房和基礎建設。

parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy

Capital: 首府:  努克,前稱戈特霍布(Godthaab)。人口1.3萬(1998年1月)。

Nuuk (Godthab)

Administrative divisions: 【行政區劃】全島分為東格陵蘭、西格陵蘭和北格陵蘭三部分。

3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland), Tunu (Ostgronland), Kitaa (Vestgronland)

note:  there are 18 municipalities in Greenland

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979)

note:  foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland
National holiday: June 21 (longest day)
Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system: Danish
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Gunnar MARTENS (since NA 1995)

head of government:  Prime Minister Jonathan MOTZFELDT (since 19 September 1997)

cabinet:  Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties

elections:  the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 16 February 1999 (next to be held NA February 2003)

election results:  Jonathan MOTZFELDT reelected prime minister following the 16 February 1999 elections; percent of parliamentary vote - 57.3%

note:  government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA)
Legislative branch: 【議會】 自治議會(Landsting)經普選產生,任期4年,設31個議席。本屆自治議會於1999年2月選舉產生,前進黨11席,團結黨8席,工人黨7席,獨立聯盟4席,無黨派人士1席,議長約翰·隆德·奧爾森(Johan Lund Olsen,工人黨)。

unicameral Parliament or Landstinget (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held on 16 February 1999 (next to be held by NA February 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.2%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 22.1%, Atassut Party 25.2%, Candidate's League 12.3%, independent 5.2%; seats by party - Siumut 11, Atassut 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 7, Candidate List 4, independent 1

note:  two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 11 March 1998 (next to be held by not later than March 2002); percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.6%, Atassut 35.2%; seats by party - Siumut 1, Atassut 1; Greenlandic representatives are affiliated with Danish political parties (Siamut with Social Democratic Party and Atassut with Liberal Party)

Judicial branch: High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
Political parties and leaders: 總督:  古納(馬頓斯 (Gunnar Martens)。

【政黨】
(1)前進黨(Siumut):1977年7月成立。主席拉斯·艾米爾·約翰森(Lars Emil Johanson)。屬溫和社會主義黨派,主張在實現更高程度的自治。
(2)團結黨(Atassut):1978年1月成立。前身是團結運動,1981年改為現名。主席康拉德·斯丁霍爾特(Konrad Steenholdt)。傾向保守,主張加強格陵蘭與丹麥的關係。
(3)工人黨(Inuit Ataqatigiit):由1978年從前進黨分裂出來的左翼人士組成。主席約瑟夫·莫茲菲特(Josef  Motzfeldt)。主張格陵蘭脫離丹麥完全獨立。
(4)北極黨(Issittup Partiia):1987年5月成立。
(5)中央黨(Akkulliit Partiiat):1991年成立。
(6)獨立聯盟(Kattusseqatigiit):1998成立。

Akulliit Party [Bjarne KREUTZMANN]; Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark) [Daniel SKIFTE]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party with no official platform [leader NA]; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Jonathan MOTZFELDT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ICC, NC, NIB
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom half is white
Greenland    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: 經濟:   捕魚業和魚產品加工業是主要經濟部門。1977年建立200海里漁區。1997年總捕魚量約12.1萬噸,價值4億多克朗。主要水產品為蝦、格陵蘭大比目魚、鱈魚和鮭魚。1998年有各種漁船441艘,其中快艇300艘,噸位在20噸以上漁船103艘。
   1997年各項經濟指數如下:
   國內生產總值:70.8億丹麥克朗(約合10.9億美元)。
   人均國民生產總值:12.6萬克朗(約合1.94萬美元)。
   經濟增長率:1.4%。   

【財政金融】 1997年,自治政府財政收入為41.36億克朗,支出40.47億克朗。丹麥政府給予自治政府的補貼總額為31.61億丹麥克朗。
【對外貿易】 主要出口魚、蝦、裘皮和礦產品;進口各種生產資料和生活資料。近年來商品進出口情況如下(單位:億克朗):
年份1994199519961997
進口額23.124.327.226.3
出口額18.120.821.419.4
差  額-5.0-3.5-5.8-6.9
   1997年與主要貿易夥伴進出口情況如下(單位:億克朗):
國名             進口額國名            出口額
丹麥17.1             丹麥                      17.0
挪威3.2               英國                        0.7
法國0.8               日本                        0.6
美國0.7               美國                        0.4

【狩獵業和牧業】 狩獵業是傳統行業,有1/4人口以此為生。年產海豹皮約18萬張、狐狸皮1000多張。畜牧業以羊和馴鹿為主,年宰羊約1.5萬隻。

The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)
Labor force: 24,500 (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $646 million

expenditures:  $629 million, including capital expenditures of $85 million (1999)
Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, furs, small shipyards
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 250 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  41%

hydro:  59%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0%

note:  Greenland is shifting its electricity production from fossil fuel to hydroelectric power production (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 232.5 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish
Exports: $276 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities: 主要出口魚、蝦、裘皮和礦產品。

fish and fish products 94%

Exports - partners: EU (mainly Denmark) 85%, Japan 8%, US 2% (1999)
Imports: $400 million (c.i.f., 1999)
Imports - commodities: 主要進口各種生產資料和生活資料。

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products

Imports - partners: EU (mostly Denmark), Norway, US, Canada
Debt - external: $25 million (1999)
Economic aid - recipient: $380 million subsidy from Denmark (1999)
Currency: 貨幣名稱:丹麥克朗。   

Danish krone (DKK)

Currency code: DKK
Exchange rates: 匯率:1美元=6.5克朗。

Danish kroner per US dollar - 7.951 (January 2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year
Greenland    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 25,617 (end 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 12,676 (end 1999)
Telephone system: general assessment:  adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995

domestic:  microwave radio relay and satellite

international:  satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)
Newspaper: 主要報刊有《格陵蘭郵報》、前進黨黨報《前進報》和團結黨黨報《團結報》。
Radio broadcast stations: 格陵蘭廣播電視臺用格陵蘭語和丹麥語播音和播放電視節目。

AM 5, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 30,000 (1998 est.)
Television broadcast stations: 格陵蘭廣播電視臺用格陵蘭語和丹麥語播音和播放電視節目。

1 publicly-owned station, some local low-power stations, and three AFRTS (US Air Force) stations (1997)

Televisions: 30,000 (1998 est.)
Internet country code: .gl
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: 4,008 (1999)
Greenland    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 【交通運輸】 主要交通工具為船、飛機、直升機和雪橇等。

0 km

Highways: 1998年有汽車3804輛,其中私人小轎車2242輛。

total:  150 km

paved:  60 km

unpaved:  90 km

Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: 同丹麥、加拿大和冰島有定期航班或客貨輪聯繫。

Aasiaat (Egedesminde), Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Kangerlussuaq, Nanortalik, Narsarsuaq, Nuuk (Godthab), Qaqortoq (Julianehab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Tasiilaq (March 2001)

Merchant marine: total:  2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,289 GRT/1,500 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 1, passenger 1 (2000 est.)
Airports: 13 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  8

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  4 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  5

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  3

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Greenland    Military Top of Page
Military - note: 軍事:  丹在格設有格陵蘭司令部,具體負責漁區巡邏、海上救援、海洋測量、氣象服務及同美軍事基地的聯絡。1941年4月9日,丹美簽訂《格陵蘭防務協定》,美取得在島上建立軍事設施的權利。美國設有圖勒軍事基地、雷達站和預警系統。

defense is the responsibility of Denmark

Greenland    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none