Guam
關島

(territory of the US)

    Click for Agana Heights, Guam Forecast  

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Guam    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

關島位於馬里亞納群島最南端,是通向密克羅尼西亞(西太平洋諸島總稱)的門戶,為美國海外屬地。

位於中太平洋西部馬里亞納群島南端,赤道以北13.48度,夏威夷以西5300公里處。屬熱帶雨林氣候,年均氣溫26℃。年降雨量2000毫米。常有地震。
1521
年麥哲倫在環球旅行時抵達關島。1565年被西班牙人佔領。歐洲人在此大肆迫害當地土著(密克羅尼西亞人),使土著人口從1521年的10萬多人銳減至1741年的5000多人。1898年美西戰爭後被割讓給美國。1941年被日本佔領,1944年被美軍奪回後成為主要海空軍基地,歸美海軍部管轄。1950年美國通過《關島組織法》,宣佈關島為美“未合併領土”,賦予關島地方政府自治權力,歸美國內政部管轄。關島居民有美國公民權,但不能在全美選舉中投票。1976年的一項公民投票支持關島維持與美國密切聯繫的地位,目前關島正與美國政府就關島獲得美國聯邦領土地位問題進行談判,並要求美國軍方將軍事用地歸還民用。1994年,美軍將3200英畝土地歸還民用,1995年又將位於中央位置的布里菲爾德空軍基地交還民用。

Guam was ceded to the US by Spain in 1898. Captured by the Japanese in 1941, it was retaken by the US three years later. The military installation on the island is one of the most strategically important US bases in the Pacific.

Guam    Geography Top of Page
Location: 位於中太平洋西部馬里亞納群島南端

Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 144 47 E
Map references: Oceania
Area: 面積:  549平方公里。

total:  549 sq km

land:  549 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: three times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 125.5 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: 屬熱帶雨林氣候,年均氣溫26℃。年降雨量2000毫米。

tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water), with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center, mountains in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mount Lamlam 406 m
Natural resources: fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially from Japan)
Land use: arable land:  11%

permanent crops:  11%

permanent pastures:  15%

forests and woodland:  18%

other:  45% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: frequent squalls during rainy season; relatively rare, but potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)
Environment - current issues: extirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the brown tree snake, an exotic species
Geography - note: largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean
Guam    People Top of Page
Population: 人口:  136000人(1995年,包括軍事人員及其家屬),人口密度為每平方公里271人。

157,557 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  35.07% (male 28,978; female 26,270)

15-64 years:  58.78% (male 48,704; female 43,902)

65 years and over:  6.15% (male 4,871; female 4,832) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.09% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 25.07 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 4.2 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.14 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.11 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.01 male(s)/female

total population:  1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 6.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  77.94 years

male:  75.66 years

female:  80.55 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.85 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Guamanian(s)

adjective:  Guamanian
Ethnic groups: 人口中查莫羅人(為西班牙人、密克羅尼西亞人和菲律賓人的混血後裔)約佔43%,其餘主要為菲律賓人和來自美國大陸的移民,還有密克羅尼西亞人、關島土著人及華裔、日裔等。1996年,曾有兩千多名庫爾德難民被暫安置到該島。

Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, white 10%, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other 18%

Religions: 90%的居民信奉天主教。

Roman Catholic 85%, other 15% (1999 est.)

Languages: 英語為官方語言,通用查莫羅語及日語。

English, Chamorro, Japanese

Education: 文化教育:  1993年,島上共有各類公立中小學36所,若干所私立學校,在校學生約32000人。有兩所公立大學和兩所私立大學,以公立關島大學規模最大,有學生2000多人。
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  99%

male:  99%

female:  99% (1990 est.)
Guam    Government Top of Page
Country name: 關島

conventional long form:  Territory of Guam

conventional short form:  Guam

Dependency status: organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Politics: 治:  關島使用美國國旗。1969年美國眾議院通過選舉關島總督的法令,1970年第一任民選總督產生。1972年美國會通過法案,同意關島派遣一名常駐美國會眾院代表,在眾院委員會有表決權,但在眾院全院大會無表決權。現任代表為羅伯特·A·安得伍德(Robert A. Underwood)。政黨有民主黨和共和黨,分屬美國的民主黨和共和黨。有一個由21人組成的一院制議會,普選產生,任期兩年。1996年11 月的選舉使共和黨人再次獲得議會多數。從1998年11月起,議會由21人縮減至15人。法院法官由美國總統任命,任期8年。政府下設48個行政部門。
Government type: NA
Capital: 首府:  阿加尼亞,人口1139人(1990年)。

Hagatna (Agana)

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)
Independence: none (territory of the US)
National holiday: Discovery Day, first Monday in March (1521)
Constitution: Organic Act of 1 August 1950
Legal system: modeled on US; US federal laws apply
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state:  President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)

head of government:  Governor Carl GUTIERREZ (since 8 November 1994) and Lieutenant Governor Madeleine BORDALLO (since 8 November 1994)

cabinet:  executive departments; heads appointed by the governor with the consent of the Guam legislature

elections:  US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for a four-year term; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2002)

election results:  Carl GUTIERREZ reelected governor; percent of vote - Carl GUTIERREZ (Democrat) 53.2%, Joseph ADA (Republican) 46.8%
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)

elections:  last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 8, Democratic Party 7

note:  Guam elects one delegate to the US House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); results - Robert UNDERWOOD was reelected as delegate; percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 1
Judicial branch: Federal District Court (judge is appointed by the president); Territorial Superior Court (judges appointed for eight-year terms by the governor)
Political parties and leaders: 總督:  擁有行政權,每四年普選產生。1995年6月,卡爾·古鐵雷滋(Carl Gutierrez)就任總督。

Democratic Party (party of the Governor) [leader NA]; Republican Party (controls the legislature) [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)
Flag description: territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a beach scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; US flag is the national flag
Guam    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: 濟:  貨幣使用美元。島內收入主要依靠旅遊業和美軍在該島海空基地的開支。每年僅旅遊一項就創收約1590萬美元。1995年外國遊客達136萬人次。遊客主要來自日本。服務業是當地的主要產業。1988年國內生產總值為10億美元,人均國民生產總值為7675美元,1994年人均國民生產總值上升為11800美元,近年有所下降。主要工業有建築、輕工、食品加工、煉油等。主要農作物有煙草、水果等。1994年漁獲量650噸。1993年,對外貿易出口額為0.86億美元,進口額為1.12億美元。主要貿易對象為亞太地區國家。近年來,由於外來移民大量湧入,威脅到當地查莫羅人地位,限制移民的呼聲日高。近來,關島政府提出要將關島建成“離岸金融中心”的規劃,但其實現與否,同關島能否取得美國聯邦領土地位有很大關係。

The economy depends on US military spending, tourism, and the export of fish and handicrafts. Total US grants, wage payments, and procurement outlays amounted to $1 billion in 1998. Over the past 20 years, the tourist industry has grown rapidly, creating a construction boom for new hotels and the expansion of older ones. More than 1 million tourists visit Guam each year. The industry has recently suffered setbacks because of the continuing Japanese slowdown; the Japanese normally make up almost 90% of the tourists. Most food and industrial goods are imported. Guam faces the problem of building up the civilian economic sector to offset the impact of military downsizing.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  15% (1993)

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1999 est.)
Labor force: 60,000 (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: federal and territorial government 26%, private 74% (trade 24%, other services 40%, industry 10%) (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 15% (2000 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $605.3 million

expenditures:  $654.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Industries: US military, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 800 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 744 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: fruits, copra, vegetables; eggs, pork, poultry, beef
Exports: $75.7 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities: mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products; construction materials, fish, food and beverage products
Exports - partners: US 25%
Imports: $203 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
Imports - partners: US 23%, Japan 19%
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: Guam receives large transfer payments from the US Federal Treasury ($143 million in 1997) into which Guamanians pay no income or excise taxes; under the provisions of a special law of Congress, the Guam Treasury, rather than the US Treasury, receives federal income taxes paid by military and civilian Federal employees stationed in Guam
Currency: US dollar (USD)
Currency code: USD
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Guam    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 84,134 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 55,000 (1998)
Telephone system: general assessment:  modern system, integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers

domestic:  modern digital system, including cellular mobile service and local access to the Internet

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to US and Japan (Guam is a trans-Pacific communications hub for MCI, Sprint, AT&T, IT&E, and GTE, linking the US and Asia)
Newspaper: 有《太平洋每日新聞》、《關島商業周報》及《關島論壇報》等七家主要報紙。
Radio broadcast stations: 有五家電臺。

AM 4, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 221,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 有三家電視臺。

5 (1997)

Televisions: 106,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .gu
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20 (2000)
Internet users: 5,000 (2000)
Guam    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  885 km

paved:  675 km

unpaved:  210 km

note:  there are also 685 km of roads classified non-public, including roads located on federal government installations
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Apra Harbor
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 5 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  4

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Guam    Military Top of Page
Military - note: 事:  美重要軍事基地。1996年9月美軍飛機從該島起飛對伊拉克南部進行空襲。美軍在關島的軍事用地約27000英畝(包括已歸還民用的部分),約佔關島陸地總面積的20%。關島的安德遜空軍基地是美國在太平洋地區的一個重要戰略空軍基地。美海軍在阿加尼亞設有航空,在阿蔔拉港有潛艇基地。美海軍陸戰隊和海岸警衛隊在島上有駐軍。1996年,島上有美國空軍人員2100人,海軍人員4600人。

defense is the responsibility of the US

Guam    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none