Flag of Christmas Island

Christmas Island
(territory of Australia)


  Click for Christmas Island, Australian Islands Forecast  


   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Christmas Island

Christmas Island    Introduction Top of Page
Background: Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed and settlement was begun by the UK in 1888. Phosphate mining began in the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to Australia in 1958. The phosphate mine, closed in 1987, was reopened four years later, but the need for an alternative industry has spurred investment in tourism. Old mining areas are being restored, and almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.
Christmas Island    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total:  135 sq km

land:  135 sq km

water:  0 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 138.9 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  12 NM

exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM
Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Murray Hill 361 m
Natural resources: phosphate
Land use: arable land:  NA%

permanent crops:  NA%

permanent pastures:  NA%

forests and woodland:  NA%

other:  NA%

note:  mainly tropical rainforest of which 60%-70% is in a national park
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean
Christmas Island    People Top of Page
Population: 2,771 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  NA%

15-64 years:  NA%

65 years and over:  NA%
Population growth rate: 7.77% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population
Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  NA years

male:  NA years

female:  NA years
Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Christmas Islander(s)

adjective:  Christmas Island
Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous population
Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)
Languages: English, Chinese, Malay
Christmas Island    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Territory of Christmas Island

conventional short form:  Christmas Island
Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories
Government type: NA
Capital: The Settlement
Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)
Independence: none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: NA
Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general

head of government:  Administrator William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999)

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)

elections:  last held NA December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2001)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: none
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)
Flag description: the flag of Australia is used
Christmas Island    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened by union workers. With the support of the government, Australian-based Casinos Austria International Ltd. built a $34 million casino on Christmas Island, which opened in 1993. As of yearend 1999, gaming facilities at the casino were temporarily closed but were expected to reopen in early 2000. Another economic prospect is the possible location of a space-launching site on the island.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%
Labor force: NA
Labor force - by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people (1995)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Budget: revenues:  $NA

expenditures:  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: NA kWh
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%
Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
Agriculture - products: NA
Exports: $NA
Exports - commodities: phosphate
Exports - partners: Australia, NZ
Imports: $NA
Imports - commodities: consumer goods
Imports - partners: principally Australia
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)
Currency code: AUD
Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Christmas Island    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: NA
Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  NA

international:  satellite earth stations - one Intelsat earth station provides telephone and telex service
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 1,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: NA
Televisions: 600 (1997)
Internet country code: .cx
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: NA
Christmas Island    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines
Highways: total:  140 km (not including 100 km that is maintained by private industry)

paved:  30 km

unpaved:  110 km (1999)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Christmas Island    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
Christmas Island    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none