Flag of Montserrat

Montserrat
蒙特塞拉特

(overseas territory of the UK)

國歌

     

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Montserrat

 
Montserrat    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

蒙特塞拉特
Montserrat

   面積  102平方公里。
   
人口  5000人,主要是黑人。居民信奉基督教、新教和天主教。2000年人口自然出生率為1.75%,自然死亡率為0.75%。平均壽命高達78歲。
   
首府  普利茅斯(Plymouth)。毀於1997年火山爆發,臨時政府所在地為布萊茲(Brades)。
   
總督  安東尼·阿博特(Anthony Abbott),19978月就任。
   
簡況  位於加勒比海東北、小安的列斯群島之中。東北、東南分別與安提瓜島和瓜德羅普島隔水相望。屬熱帶氣候,年平均氣溫30℃。1493年哥倫布到達此島。1632年淪為英國殖民地,後曾兩次被法國佔領。1783年再度淪為英國殖民地。1871年∼1956年為背風群島聯邦殖民地的一部分。1958年∼1962年為“西印度聯邦”成員。19671月舉行公民投票,仍繼續為英國直屬殖民地,由英國女王任命總督直接統治。    
   
政治  原定200111月舉行全國大選。20012月,以獨立人士戴維·布蘭特為首席部長的聯合政府中的兩名部長國不滿布的專制作風而辭職,不得不於4月提前大選。選民投票率為78%。
   [
憲法]196011日生效。憲法規定總督代表英國女王,負責防務、外事、司法、特定金融事務和內部治安,任執行理事會主席。198912月對新憲法進行修正,增加了保護個人的基本權力和自由、准許該島享有自決權等條款。
   [
議會]稱立法會議。由12名成員組成:議長、7名普選產生的議員、官方成員和指定的人員各2(總檢察長和財政秘書)。本屆議會20014月選舉產生。人民解放運動黨 NPLM)獲7席,國家進步黨獲2席。
   [
政府]稱執行理事會。由總督、四名選舉產生的部長(一名首席部長和三名部長 )和兩名指定人員(總檢察長和財政秘書 )組成。本屆理事會於20014月大選後產生,首席部長兼旅遊、經濟發展和新聞部長約翰·奧斯本(John Osborne,財政、貿易、農業和環境部長瑪格麗特·戴爾-(Margaret Dyer-Howe),通訊和工程、土地、住房、勞動和減災部長洛厄爾·劉易斯(Lowell Lewis,衛生、教育、社區服務、體育和文化部伊達貝爾·米德(Idabelle Meade),議會秘書:克勞德·霍根(Claude Hogan),總檢察長格特爾·湯姆(Gertel Thom),財政秘書查爾斯·約翰(Charles T. John)。執行理事會書記凱瑟琳·拉塞爾(Kathleen Russell)    
   [
司法機構]設有即席裁決法院和地方法院。最高終審機構為東加勒比最高法院。該法院駐蒙陪席推事(巡迴)內維爾·史密斯(Neville L. Smith)。地方法官安娜·瑞安(Anna B.Ryan)。總檢察長格特爾·湯姆。
   [
政黨]:(1)人民進步聯盟(People’s Progressive Alliance)1996年成立。領袖約翰·奧斯本(John Osborne)
2)國家進步黨(National Progressive Party):19919月成立。領袖魯本·米德(Reuben T. Meade)
3)國家重建運動(Movement for National Reconstruction)1996年成立。領袖奧斯汀·布拉姆博(Austin Bramble)。
   
經濟  以旅遊業、服務業和農業為主。近年來,通訊業和金融業發展迅速,正逐漸成為政府的主要收入來源之一。為實現農產品自給的目標,政府把農業作為發展重點之一,制定了一系列發展計劃。同時大力發展輕工業,減少經濟對旅遊業和農業的依賴。近兩年斷斷續續的火山活動使經濟基本停滯,一半人口撤離。19978月,英國政府宣佈了自願撤離計劃,為願意離開島嶼的人提供資助。英國和蒙特塞拉特的官員就《國家政策計劃》(Country Policy Plan)草案達成一致,到19984月的三年將英財政援助計劃中的5900萬英鎊(約合7500萬美元)用於緊急事件、撤離或發展支出,包括提供給每個成年人2400英鎊、每個兒童600英鎊以及去英國或加勒比其它島嶼的交通費用。19991月英國政府又決定下一個三年計劃中,政府將從財政撥款7500萬英鎊(約合1.25億美元)。
   
國內生產總值(1999年):3630萬美元。
   
人均國內生產總值(1999年):7891美元。
   
國內生產總值增長率(1999年):-1.5%
   
貨幣名稱:東加勒比元。
   
固定匯率: 1美元=2.7東加勒比元。
   
通貨膨脹率(1999年估計):5%
   
失業率(1996年估計):20%
   
儲備(1996年估算):870萬美元。
   
公共外債(1997年):1082萬美元。
     (
資料來源:2000/2001年經濟季評,美國中情局網站)
   [
工業]是政府重點發展部門,目前規模較小。主要生產輕工產品,如電子零件、塑料袋、皮製品等。從業人數佔勞動人口的 30.9%1994年,製造業產值佔國內生產總值的3.7%,建築業產值佔國內生產總值的 9.9%1998年發電量900萬千瓦時。
   [
農牧漁業]可耕地較少。從業人數佔勞動人口的5.6%。主要種植棉花、土豆、紅薯、辣椒、熱帶水果和蔬菜等,其中土豆、紅薯、芒果和酸橙可向鄰島出口。2000年農業產值佔國內生產總值的5.4%。1998年養牛10000頭,豬1000頭,綿羊5000頭,山羊7000頭,家禽50500只。1998年估計產肉1000噸,牛奶1噸。1995年捕魚175噸。
   [
旅遊業]是經濟的重要部門。遊客主要來自北美。19941月政府公佈了旅遊五年計劃。1996年遊客總數為14441人,其中過夜遊客8703人,遊船遊客4394人,短期遊客1344人,遊客消費為310萬美元。
   [
交通運輸]
   
公路:公路總長269公里,1990年全國有註冊機動車2708輛。
   
水運:有通往美國和鄰近國家及地區的航線。主要港口是普利茅斯,1997年損毀於火山活動。1990734艘貨船抵港,卸貨49000噸,裝貨6000噸。
   
空運:有航班通往安提瓜和巴布達、瓜德羅普、聖基茨和尼維斯。主要機場是布萊克伯恩機場,1997年毀於火山。目前正準備在北部修建新的簡易機場。1988年運客量為30272人次,運貨量為214 噸。
   
目前,有通往安提瓜的輪渡和少量直升機服務。正在修建一個新碼頭和機場的可行性研究。
   [
財政金融]近年經常性項目財政收支情況(單位:百萬東加元):
            1996       1997    1998
收入         33.6       27.5    23.2
支出        -54.4      -62.9   -57.9
差額        -20.8      -35.4   -34.7
   
(資料來源: 2000年歐洲年鑒、20002001年度經濟季評)
   [
對外貿易]長期嚴重入超。主要貿易對象是美國。出口產品是電子產品、棉製品和包裝用品。1993年電子產品出口佔出口總數的69%。主要進口食品、煙草、機械、運輸工具和燃料。主要進口國美國、英國、特立尼達和多巴哥,分別佔進口總額的48.5%, 14.7%16.3%。主要出口國美國、安提瓜和巴布達,分別佔出口總額的65%18.3%。近幾年貿易情況(單位:百萬美元)
             1996      1997      1998     1999          
出口         41.3      8.2       1.2      3.7
進口         36.0     28.1      30.8     32.3
差額          5.3    -19.9     -29.6    -28.6
(資料來源:2000/2001年度經濟季評)

   [
外國援助]援助來自英國、加拿大、歐洲共同體、聯合國、加勒比開發銀行和美國國際開發署。 1997年蒙特塞拉特火山大規模爆發,使島上2/3土地無法居住。居民集中到北部“安全區”。英國政府立即撥款680萬英鎊,後又加撥650萬英鎊,並許諾提供45萬英鎊為居民維修臨時住所。2000年政府許諾財政撥款7500萬英鎊援助。
   [
人民生活]在蒙島的“安全區”已建成一座新醫院。另有12家保健中心,7名醫生。兒童、孕婦和老人可免費治療口腔疾病。實行社會保障計劃。2000年政府投入456萬美元用於醫療及社區服務,佔當年財政預算的22.6%1990年有車輛2708台。1997年據估計共有收音機7000台,電視機3000台。1995年據估計有電話機5000部。
   
文化教育
   [
教育]對入公立學校的 5歲-14歲兒童實行免費義務教育。識字率達97%。1993/1994年學校及學生情況如下:
       
學校()          學生()           教師()
學前教育  12                 407               31
小學      11                1525               85
中學      2                  905               80
工程院校  1                   72
   
西印度大學在首都普利茅斯設立一美術系。1989年有學生216人。火山活動已迫使大部分學校關閉。  
   [
新聞出版]有兩份英文周刊:《蒙特塞拉特記者》,發行量2000份;《蒙特塞拉特時報》,發行量1000份。一份英文日報《蒙特塞拉特日報》,系官方出版物。
   
蒙特塞拉特電臺:政府電臺,1952年創立,1957年首次播音。安的列斯電臺:地區商業性電臺。1963年創立,用英、法兩種語言播音。明珠廣播網絡:商業性電臺,1984年創立。
   
安的列斯有線電視臺:有兩個頻道。另有蒙特塞拉特有線電視臺。
   
對外關係  1974年加入加勒比共同體和共同市場。198174日成為東加勒比國家組織成員。
   [
同中國的關係]19853月,我駐巴巴多斯大使對蒙特塞拉特進行私人訪問,受到總督和首席部長接見。

Much of this island has been devastated and two-thirds of the population has fled abroad due to the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano that began on 18 July 1995.

Montserrat    Geography Top of Page
Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total:  100 sq km

land:  100 sq km

water:  0 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 40 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM
Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Chances Peak (in the Soufriere Hills) 914 m
Natural resources: NEGL
Land use: arable land:  20%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  10%

forests and woodland:  40%

other:  30% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic eruptions (full-scale eruptions of the Soufriere Hills volcano occurred during 1996-97)
Environment - current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation
Montserrat    People Top of Page
Population: 7,574

note:  an estimated 8,000 refugees left the island following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; some have returned (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  23.83% (male 907; female 898)

15-64 years:  64.66% (male 2,341; female 2,556)

65 years and over:  11.51% (male 464; female 408) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 13.39% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 17.43 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 123.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.14 male(s)/female

total population:  0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 8.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  78.03 years

male:  75.95 years

female:  80.22 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Montserratian(s)

adjective:  Montserratian
Ethnic groups: black, white
Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations
Languages: English
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population:  97%

male:  97%

female:  97% (1970 est.)
Montserrat    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Montserrat
Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK
Government type: NA
Capital: Plymouth (abandoned in 1997 due to volcanic activity; interim government buildings have been built at Brades, in the Carr's Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat)
Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter's
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)
Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989
Legal system: English common law and statutory law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Anthony John ABBOTT (since NA September 1997)

head of government:  Chief Minister David BRANDT (since 22 August 1997)

cabinet:  Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary

elections:  the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister; note - as a result of the last election, a coalition party was formed between NPP, NDP, and one of the independent candidates
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 7 popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held by NA November 2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPA 2, MNR 2, NPP 1, independent 2
Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court)
Political parties and leaders: Movement for National Reconstruction or MNR [Percival Austin BRAMBLE]; National Development Party or NDP [leader NA]; National Progressive Party or NPP [Reuben T. MEADE]; People's Progressive Alliance or PPA [John A. OSBORNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, WCL
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around a black cross
Montserrat    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Severe volcanic activity, which began in July 1995, has put a damper on this small, open economy. A catastrophic eruption in June 1997 closed the airports and seaports, causing further economic and social dislocation. Two-thirds of the 12,000 inhabitants fled the island. Some began to return in 1998, but lack of housing limited the number. The agriculture sector continued to be affected by the lack of suitable land for farming and the destruction of crops. Prospects for the economy depend largely on developments in relation to the volcano and on public sector construction activity. The UK committed to a three year $125 million aid program in 1999 to help reconstruct the economy.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $31 million (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.5% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1999 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  5.4%

industry:  13.6%

services:  81% (1996 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1998)
Labor force: 4,521 (1992); note - recently lowered by flight of people from volcanic activity
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $31.4 million

expenditures:  $31.6 million, including capital expenditures of $8.4 million (1997 est.)
Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 9.3 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, peppers; livestock products
Exports: $1.5 million (1998)
Exports - commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle
Exports - partners: US, Antigua and Barbuda (1993)
Imports: $26 million (1998)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
Imports - partners: US, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1993)
Debt - external: $8.9 million (1997)
Economic aid - recipient: $9.8 million (1995); note - about $100 million (1996-98) in reconstruction aid from the UK; Country Policy Plan (1999) is a three-year program for spending $122.8 million in British budgetary assistance
Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Currency code: XCD
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Montserrat    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 70 (1994)
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  NA

international:  NA
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 7,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Televisions: 3,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ms
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 17 (2000)
Internet users: NA
Montserrat    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  269 km

paved:  203 km

unpaved:  66 km (1995)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Plymouth (abandoned), Little Bay (anchorages and ferry landing), Carr's Bay
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Montserrat    Military Top of Page
Military branches: Police Force
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
Montserrat    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe