Flag of Midway Islands

Midway Islands
中途島

(territory of the US)

國歌

     

當地時間

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Map of Midway Islands

 
Midway Islands    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

中途島(Midway Island

中途島(Midway Island 美國無建制領土。位於太平洋北部,地處太平洋東、西兩岸的中途,屬波利尼西亞群島。東南距檀香山約1850公里。由沙島、東島和斯皮特島組成,為珊瑚礁島,陸地面積6.2平方公里,周長15公里。地勢低平,陸地最高點為海平面以上13米。屬亞熱帶氣候,盛行東風。島上無本土居民。
美國人布魯克斯1859年抵達該島,1867年被美佔領,1903年建成海軍基地,並由於其所處美國加州及日本中途的地理位置而被美海軍改為現名。1905年在沙島上建成夏威夷與菲律賓之間的海底電纜連結站。1935年建成民用航空站。1940年美國海軍修建了航空和潛艇基地。194263日∼6日,美日曾激戰於此。二次大戰後,其商業航空站的地位下降,1950年取消了定期航班。現島上有潛艇和空軍基地,還設有野生動物保護區,對公衆開放遊覽。1990年的一項美國國會立法要求將該島包括在夏威夷州的範圍之內。199610月,該島從美國國防部轉為美國內政部管轄,現由內政部的魚類和野生動物服務機構管理。經濟活動僅限於為島上的國家野生動物保護活動提供服務。所有食品和製成口依賴進口。
島上有32公里的高速路,7.8公里的管道,三個機場(1999)

The US took formal possession of the islands in 1867. The laying of the trans-Pacific cable, which passed through the islands, brought the first residents in 1903. Between 1935 and 1947, Midway was used as a refueling stop for trans-Pacific flights. The US naval victory over a Japanese fleet off Midway in 1942 was one of the turning points of World War II. The islands continued to serve as a naval station until closed in 1993. Today the islands are a wildlife refuge open to the public.

Midway Islands    Geography Top of Page
Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo
Geographic coordinates: 28 13 N, 177 22 W
Map references: Oceania
Area: total:  6.2 sq km

land:  6.2 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes Eastern Island, Sand Island, and Spit Island
Area - comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 15 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: subtropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds
Terrain: low, nearly level
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location 13 m
Natural resources: wildlife, terrestrial and aquatic
Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100%
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation and photography, sport fishing, snorkeling, and scuba diving
Midway Islands    People Top of Page
Population: no indigenous inhabitants; approximately 150 people make up the staff of US Fish and Wildlife Service and their services cooperator living at the atoll (July 2001 est.)
Midway Islands    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Midway Islands
Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; formerly administered from Washington, DC, by the US Navy, under Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division; this facility has been operationally closed since 10 September 1993; on 31 October 1996, through a presidential executive order, the jurisdiction and control of the atoll was transferred to the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Flag description: the flag of the US is used
Midway Islands    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: The economy is based on providing support services for the national wildlife refuge activities located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.
Midway Islands    Transportation Top of Page
Highways: total:  NA km

paved:  NA km

unpaved:  NA km
Waterways: none
Pipelines: 7.8 km
Ports and harbors: Sand Island
Airports: 3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Midway Islands    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US
Midway Islands    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none