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Nauru
瑙魯共和國

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   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Nauru

 
Nauru    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

瑙魯共和國
The Republic of Nauru

     面積   21.1平方公里(陸地面積)。
     
人口   1.1萬人(1998年),其中瑙魯人佔58%,其他為南太平洋島國人、華人、菲律賓人和歐洲人。瑙魯語為國語,通用英語。居民多數信奉基督教新教,少數信天主教。
     
首都   不設首都。行政管理中心在亞倫區(Yaren District)。
     
國家元首  總統勒內·哈里斯(RENE HARRIS),20014月當選。
     
重要節日   獨立日(131日),憲法日(517日),返鄉日(Angam Day,1026日)
     
簡況    位於中太平洋、赤道以南約60公里處。為一珊瑚礁島,全島長6公里,寬4公里,最高點海拔61米。全島35被磷酸鹽所覆蓋。屬熱帶雨林氣候,氣溫2433℃,年平均降水量1500毫米。
   
瑙魯人世居島上。1798年英國船“獵手”號首抵瑙魯。1888年被並入德國馬紹爾群島保護地。20世紀初英國人獲准在此開採磷酸鹽。1920年國際聯盟將瑙魯劃歸英國、澳大利亞和新西蘭共管,由澳代表三國行使職權。19421945年被日本佔領。1947年成為聯合國託管地,仍由澳、新、英共管。1968131日獨立。
   
政治    1989年,多威約戈當選總統,199212月連任。199511月,拉古莫特·哈里斯(Lagumot Harris)當選總統。19961112日,伯納德·多威約戈(Bernard Dowiyogo)再次當選總統。但1210日,議會通過了對多威約戈總統的不信任案,並選舉肯南·阿德昂為總統。19972月,議會選舉金紮·克洛杜馬爾(Kinza Clodumar)為總統。19986月,議會通過對克洛杜馬爾總統的不信任案,多威約戈再次當選總統。19994月,議會通過對多威約戈總統的不信任案,選舉勒內·哈里斯為總統。20004月,議會通過對勒內·哈里斯的不信任案,又一次當選總統。20014月,議會通過對多威約戈的不信任案,勒內·哈里斯再次當選總統。
   
【憲法】  1968129日通過。實行共和總統制。總統為國家元首,也是政府首腦,由議會選舉產生。
   
【議會】  一院制,由18名議員組成,任期三年。本屆議會於20004月全國直接選舉產生。議長路德維格·斯科蒂(LUDWIG SCOTTY)。
   
【政府】本屆政府於20004月產生。主要成員:總統兼外交、財政與經濟改革、公共服務、人才開發與就業部長伯納德·多威約戈;總統協理部長兼工程、計劃與住房開發、體育、良政部長德洛格·吉歐烏拉(Derog Gioura);工業與經濟發展、民航和交通、2001年世界舉重錦標賽、商業開發與客戶事務、土地契約談判、旅遊業部長金紮·克洛杜馬爾(Kinza Clodumar);司法、瑙魯警察力量、海關與移民部長瓦薩爾·加多文津(Vassal Gadoengin);教育與業餘培訓、青年發展部長雷米·納馬杜克(Remy Namaduk);內務與文化、衛生與婦女事務部長安東尼·奧朵阿(Anthony Audoa)。
   
【司法機構】  根據1968年憲法設最高法院,下設地區法院和家庭法院。在大多數情況下,以澳大利亞高等法院為終審法院。現任大法官巴里·康奈爾(BARRY CONNELL)。
   
【政黨】  實行鬆散的多黨制,主要有瑙魯黨和民主黨。
   
   瑙魯為單一經濟,曾經是太平洋島國首富,主要收入來源是向澳大利亞、新西蘭出口磷酸鹽。農產品十分有限,主要是椰子(1992年椰子產量2000噸,養豬3000頭)。幾乎所有食品和飲用水都依賴進口。漁業資源較豐富,待開發。由於磷酸鹽礦即將枯竭(至多再開採二至三年),瑙魯近年來利用出口磷酸鹽的收入在國外進行了大量房地產投資,但多數項目經營不善,效益不佳。1989年,瑙政府開始出現財政赤字。1995年瑙魯銀行崩潰,瑙政府陷入嚴重的財政危機。1995/1996財年,瑙政府收入2340萬美元,支出6480萬美元。為解決財政問題,瑙政府採取了出售其航空公司5架飛機和3艘輪船以及瑙國護照、限制貨幣外流等措施,並在亞洲開發銀行的支持下開始實行全面改革計劃。1994年,瑙向國際法院起訴英國磷酸鹽委員會(澳、英、新為成員)在1920年至1968年期間挖掘磷酸鹽時毀壞耕地、破壞環境,獲得澳大利亞賠償1.07億澳元,在二十年內逐年償付。  
   
【通用貨幣】通用澳元。
【交通運輸】  以海運為主。
 
鐵路:全長39公里,用來連接島嶼中部的磷酸鹽礦區和西南岸的加工廠。
     
公路:有環島瀝青公路,全長24公里,其他公路6公里;共有機動車1840輛。
     
水運:瑙魯太平洋公司負責主要航運,有6艘貨船,總噸位為65萬噸。
     
空運:瑙魯航空公司有1架波音737客機,定期來往於澳大利亞、新西蘭、斐濟、基里巴斯、所羅門群島和菲律賓等。
   
【財政金融】  1995/1996年財政收入約為2340萬美元,支出為6480萬美元。    
【對外貿易】 1991年,進口總額2100萬美元,出口總額2530萬美元。主要出口磷酸鹽,1991年磷酸鹽出口量32.47萬噸;主要進口食品、飲用水。主要貿易對象為澳大利亞和新西蘭。

   
人民生活  人均收入4600澳元。實行免費醫療,有兩所醫院。
軍事  無軍隊,防務由澳大利亞協助。有警察55名。
電訊  1994年有電話約2000門,移動電話約450部。
   
文化教育  【教育】  實行免費義務教育。學生在國外接受高等教育,費用由政府提供。2000年有一名學生在中國留學。
   
【新聞出版】  有周刊《公報》,發行750份。另有雙周刊《中央星報》,1991年創刊。瑙魯廣播電臺為官方電臺。1993年新建一個國際通訊網絡,與世界各地進行數字通訊聯繫。
   
對外關係   瑙魯奉行不結盟政策。主張同各國人民友好。瑙魯是南太平洋論壇和太平洋共同體成員國。瑙於19867月簽署了南太平洋無核區條約。與英、美、日、新、澳、俄和其它南太平洋島國有外交關係。為抗議法國在南太地區恢復核試驗,瑙魯政府宣佈自199596日起中止與法國的外交關係。瑙魯在澳大利亞、印度、新西蘭、美國、英國、斐濟、薩摩亞、香港特區和中國臺灣省等地設總領事館、領事館或辦事處。瑙魯是英聯邦的成員國。1993年初加入了亞洲開發銀行。 19999月,瑙被接納為聯合國成員。
【同中國的關係】 1979年中國駐斐濟大使和中國武術團先後訪瑙。19827月湖南雜技團訪瑙。19917月,瑙魯總統多威約戈就中國遭受水災致函中國政府表示慰問,並捐款1萬美元。1998527日,我外交部駐港特區公署特派員馬毓真會見了來港進行私人訪問的瑙魯總統金紮·克洛杜馬爾。19998月,楊潔篪副外長會見了來京出席第二十二屆萬國郵聯大會的瑙財長克洛杜馬爾。
2000
年中國同瑙魯雙邊貿易額為2.6萬美元,皆為我方出口,無進口。
   
瑙魯與臺灣關係始於聯合國託管時代。1968年瑙魯獨立,即獲得臺灣當局“承認”。瑙魯於1975年在台設“領事館”。19805月瑙魯同臺灣當局建立“外交關係”。同年,臺灣在瑙魯設“領事館”。19908月,雙方宣佈建立“全面外交關係”,台在瑙的“總領事館”也升格為“大使館”。

Nauru's phosphate deposits began to be mined early in the 20th century by a German-British consortium; the island was occupied by Australian forces in World War I. Upon achieving independence in 1968, Nauru became the smallest independent republic in the world; it joined the UN in 1999.

Nauru    Geography Top of Page
Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands
Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E
Map references: Oceania
Area: total:  21 sq km

land:  21 sq km

water:  0 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 30 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)
Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m
Natural resources: phosphates
Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: periodic droughts
Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater, but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years - mainly by a UK, Australia, and NZ consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator
Nauru    People Top of Page
Population: 12,088 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  40.33% (male 2,510; female 2,365)

15-64 years:  57.97% (male 3,475; female 3,533)

65 years and over:  1.7% (male 103; female 102) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 27.22 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.01 male(s)/female

total population:  1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 10.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  61.2 years

male:  57.7 years

female:  64.88 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.61 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Nauruan(s)

adjective:  Nauruan
Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%
Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)
Languages: Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  NA%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%
Nauru    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Nauru

conventional short form:  Nauru

former:  Pleasant Island
Government type: republic
Capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District
Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren
Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)
Constitution: 29 January 1968
Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law
Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state:  President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 19 April 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 19 April 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament

elections:  president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held 8 April 2000 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results:  Bernard DOWIYOGO elected president by a vote in Parliament of nine to eight

note:  former President Rene HARRIS was deposed in a no-confidence vote; this is the eighth change of government in Nauru since the fall of the Lagumont HARRIS government in a no-confidence motion in early November 1996; six of the last eight governments have resulted because of parliamentary no-confidence motions
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections:  last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2003)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 18
Judicial branch: Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders: loose multiparty system; Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal) [Bernard DOWIYOGO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, ICAO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in the US: Nauru does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a UN office at 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400 D, New York, New York 10017; telephone: (212) 937-0074

consulate(s):  Hagatna (Guam)
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru
Flag description: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru
Nauru    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Revenues of this tiny island have come from exports of phosphates, but reserves are expected to be exhausted within five to ten years. Phosphate production has declined since 1989, as demand has fallen in traditional markets and as the marginal cost of extracting the remaining phosphate increases, making it less internationally competitive. While phosphates have given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World, few other resources exist with most necessities being imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru's phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income have been invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru's economic future. The government has been borrowing heavily from the trusts to finance fiscal deficits. To cut costs the government has called for a freezing of wages, a reduction of over-staffed public service departments, privatization of numerous government agencies, and closure of some overseas consulates. In recent years Nauru has encouraged the registration of offshore banks and corporations. Tens of billions of dollars have been channeled through their accounts. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist, with estimates of Nauru's per capita GDP varying widely.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $59 million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3.6% (1993)
Labor force - by occupation: employed in mining phosphates, public administration, education, and transportation
Unemployment rate: 0%
Budget: revenues:  $23.4 million

expenditures:  $64.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96)
Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 27.9 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: coconuts
Exports: $25.3 million (f.o.b., 1991)
Exports - commodities: phosphates
Exports - partners: Australia, NZ
Imports: $21.1 million (c.i.f., 1991)
Imports - commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
Imports - partners: Australia, UK, NZ, Japan
Debt - external: $33.3 million
Economic aid - recipient: $2.25 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.)
Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)
Currency code: AUD
Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Nauru    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 2,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 450 (1994)
Telephone system: general assessment:  adequate local and international radiotelephone communications provided via Australian facilities

domestic:  NA

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 7,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Televisions: 500 (1997)
Internet country code: .nr
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: NA
Nauru    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: total:  5 km; note - used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to processing facilities on the southwest coast
Highways: total:  30 km

paved:  24 km

unpaved:  6 km (1998 est.)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Nauru
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Nauru    Military Top of Page
Military branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru Police Force
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  3,018 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:  1,661 (2001 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%
Military - note: Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia
Nauru    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none