Flag of Netherlands Antilles

Netherlands Antilles
荷屬安的列斯

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

國歌

     

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Map of Netherlands Antilles

 
Netherlands Antilles    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

荷屬安的列斯
The Netherlands Antilles

   面積  800平方公里(不包括阿魯巴,下同)。其中庫拉索島444平方公里,博內爾島288平方公里,聖馬丁島34平方公里,聖尤斯特歇斯島21平方公里,薩巴島13平方公里。
   
人口  估計20.17萬。80%為黑白混血種人,有少數白人。荷蘭語和帕彼曼都語為官方語言,也講西班牙語和英語。82%的居民信奉天主教,10%的居民信奉基督教新教。
   
首府  威廉斯塔德(Willemstad),人口14萬(1992年)。
   
總督  傑姆·沙勒(Jaime M.Saleh)
   
簡況  全境由加勒比海中相距800多公里的南北兩組島嶼組成。北組島嶼屬熱帶雨林氣候,南組島嶼屬熱帶草原氣候,年平均氣溫27.5℃。1499年西班牙殖民者在庫拉索登陸。1527年西班牙佔領南部三島,1634年成為荷殖民地。北部兩島於1493年被哥倫布發現,17世紀中葉被荷蘭佔據,此後多次易主,1816年成為荷蘭屬地。1954年群島獲得完全的內部事務自治權。
   
政治  19982月舉行大選,原執政黨安的列斯重建黨在議會中僅獲4個議席,雖為議會第一大黨,但未能組成聯合政府。獲得三個議席的民族人民黨聯合其他5個政黨組成聯合政府。199410月,除庫拉索島(該島已於1993年舉行公民投票不脫離聯邦)之外的其他四個島就憲法地位問題舉行公民投票,多數選民支持維持聯邦現狀。
【憲法】荷屬安的列斯的政體由1954年的荷蘭憲法所規定:荷蘭和荷屬安的列斯是在平等的基礎上為保護共同的利益和相互提供幫助而聯合的;荷屬安的列斯在內部事務上享有完全的自治權;總督代表荷蘭女王,由荷蘭女王任命,任期6年,掌管外交和國防事務;部長會議主持內政,對議會負責;安的列斯政府任命一名全權部長代表安的列斯產加荷蘭內閣;涉及荷屬安的列斯的法律提案,需交荷屬安的列斯議會審議,議會可向荷蘭議會提出意見,並派代表產加議案的辯論。
【議會】一院制,有22個議席,由普選產生,任期四年。本屆議會於19981月產生。議長埃羅爾·科瓦(Errol Cova)
【政府】由總督和部長會議組成。部長會議主席即政府總理。本屆政府於19986月就職。現政府主要成員為:總督傑姆·沙勒,總理兼總務部長米歇爾·葡西爾(Miguel Pourier),教育部長斯坦利·蘭普(Stanly Lamp),財政部長羅塞爾·沃格斯(Rossell Voges),衛生、環保、家庭、人道主義事務部長勞倫索·亞伯拉罕(Laurenso A.Abranham),司法部長拉特塞爾·馬撒(Rutsel S.J.Martha),勞動、社會事務部長露西爾·沃特(Lucille Wout),駐海牙全權部長卡萊爾·哈西斯(Carel Hasseth),國家發展和經濟事務部長蘇森·卡梅利亞·羅梅爾(Susanne F.C. Camelia-Romer)。
【司法機構】有荷屬安的列斯和阿魯巴聯合高級法院,各島有初審法庭。高級法院首席法官、總檢察長及高級法院法官均為終身制,由荷蘭女王同荷屬安的列斯政府協商後任命。高級法院首席法官德· 蘭諾依博士(Dr. L. De Lannoy),總檢察長喬治德拉格(F.M.D.L.S. Goedgedrag)。
【政黨】政黨較多,但每個政黨很難在議會得到足夠的席位單獨執政。主要政黨有:
 
1)民族人民黨(Partido Nashonal di Pueblo):1948年成立,在議會有3個席位。主席蘇森·卡梅利亞·羅梅爾(Susanne F.C. Camelia-Romer)。
 
2 安的列斯重建黨(Partido Antia Restruktura):成立於199311月,領袖為米歇爾·葡西爾。
 
3)庫拉索勞動人民黨(Partido Laboral Krusada Popular:領袖埃羅爾·科瓦。
 
4)聖馬丁愛國陣線(St Maarten Patriotic Alliance):領袖小萬斯·詹姆斯(Vance James Jr.)。
 
5 向風群島人民運動(Windward Islands People's Movement):主席威爾·約翰斯頓(Will Johnston)。
 
6 新安得列斯運動 Movimentu Antiyas Nobo):1979年成立,1980年加入社會黨國際。主席多米尼科·馬爾蒂納(Dominico F.Martina)。
 
7 國家民主黨(Democratische Partij --Statia):1944年成立。領袖肯尼斯·萬·普坦(Kenneth Van Putten)。
 
8)博內爾民主黨(Democratic Party--Bonaire):領袖喬皮耶·亞伯拉罕(Jopie Abraham)。
   
經濟  是重要的離岸金融中心,金融服務業發達。製造業相對不發達,煉油業曾為主要工業。60年代旅遊業和修船業得到發展。80年代初旅遊業取代了煉油業的位置,成為最重要的經濟部門。1994年服務業收益佔GDP86%,從業人員佔全國勞力的79.2%。資源少,主要依靠進口,尤其是食品和手工製品,美國和荷蘭是最大的貿易夥伴。80年代末,荷蘭經援減少,政府被迫採取緊縮措施,同時加緊發展經濟多樣化。多年的財政赤字使政府認識到這不利於私人投資和經濟增長。1996年,面臨已變得很龐大而且仍在迅速增長的國內外債務,政府被迫尋求外部的財政援助,與國際貨幣基金組織和荷蘭政府合作,於19965月出臺了一項結構調整計劃,旨在改善國家財政,增加進出口,恢復政府信心。
   
國民生產總值(1999年):約24億美元。
   
人均國民生產總值(1999年):11900美元。
   
國內生產總值增長率(1999年):-3.5%。
   
貨幣名稱:荷屬安的列斯盾或弗羅林,1盾=100分。
   
匯率(1999年):1美元=1.79荷屬安的列斯盾。
   
通貨膨脹率(1999年):6.4%。
失業率(1996年):13.7%。
外債(1993):17.8億美元。
 
(資料來源: 2000年第四季度經濟季評)
【工業】1994年工業產值佔國內生產總值的13.1%。1992年工業從業人數佔總從業人數的19.8%。有食品、煉油等部門。煉油業是重要的工業部門,石油轉口及修船業也很重要。製造業規模小且受保護,主要部門有造紙、塑料和紡織。1996年生產煤油38000噸,液化石油氣63000噸,汽油1790000噸,航空油10000噸,瀝青464000噸,原鹽約36600噸,發電14.82億度。
【農林牧漁業】耕地面積8000公頃。主要生產蘆薈、高粱、豆類、蔬菜、熱帶水果等。19979月牲畜存欄數:牛1000頭,豬2000頭,山羊13000只,綿羊7000只,驢3000頭。1997年生產肉1000噸,蛋1000噸。1996年捕魚996噸。
【金融服務業】為主要的離岸金融中心。1994年金融服務收入佔國民生產總值的10.6%。1994年在庫拉索註冊的33048家公司中有21149是離岸金融公司。
【旅遊業】旅遊業發達。1995年聖馬丁島兩受颶風襲擊,使旅遊業受損。博爾內島的海濱仍吸引著大量的潛水愛好者。沙灘、海洋生物及潛水設施吸引著大量歐洲、美國的遊客。1996年旅遊收入達985億荷屬安的列斯盾。1997年接待旅遊者71.6萬。
【交通運輸】無鐵路。
   
公路:各島均有良好的全天候公路網。總長813公里(庫拉索島550公里,博爾內島210公里,聖馬丁島53公里)。1996年共有汽車97671輛,其中小汽車75105輛,貨車17031輛,公共汽車722輛,出租車430輛,摩托1541輛,其他2842輛。    
   
水運:主要港口在庫拉索,也是重要的委內瑞拉和中東石油的轉運和提煉中心。1997年吞吐量約為731900噸,其中裝貨215200噸,卸貨516700噸。至199712月註冊的商業船隻138艘。
   
空運:庫拉索、聖馬丁、博內爾均有國際機場。有通往美國、阿魯巴、委內瑞拉、蘇里南及加勒比國家的航線。1988年運送乘客196萬人次。
【財政金融】1998年政府收入6.02億荷安盾,支出6.43億荷安盾,赤字0.4億荷安盾。
【對外貿易】外貿以進口原油、出口石油產品為主。原油進口額佔進口總額的89%以上。主要出口對象是美國、危地馬拉、哥斯達黎加,出口額分別佔出口總額的17.5%8%6.5%;主要進口對象為委內瑞拉、美國、墨西哥、意大利、荷蘭,進口額分別佔進口總額的35.3%21%9.8%4.8%(1998年)。1994年-1998年對外貿易情況如下(單位:億美元):

        1994     1995     1996    1998     1999
 
出口  3.51     3.70     2.25     3.03    2.62
 
進口  12.72   13.25    14.64    13.17   13.27
 
差額  -9.21   -9.55   -12.39   -10.14   10.65
     
(資料來源: 2000年第四季度經濟季評)
【外國援助】主要依靠荷蘭的援助。1993年荷蘭政府提供發展援助1.21億美元,多邊機構提供援助450萬美元。1996通過雙邊協議獲援助9400萬美元,多邊機制下獲3600萬美元的援助。
【經濟團體】
博內爾工商會(Bonaire Chamber of Commerce and Industry),通訊地址:Princess Mariestraat,POB 52 Kralendijk Bonaire,Netherlands Antilles. 商會主席:羅伯特·威廉姆斯(Robert Willems)
庫拉索工商會(Curasao Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 通訊地址:Kaya junior Salas 1, POB 10, Willemstad, Curacao, 成立於1884年,主席羅賓·馬丁納(Robbin Martina)
【人民生活】政府提供免費醫療,並對窮人提供食品救濟。實行養老金制度,健康指數與其他加勒比國家相比較高。1996年有11家醫院,病床1466張,醫生314人。1994年有電視機6.6萬台,收音機21.1萬部。1993年有電話67984部。1994年政府預算中衛生開支為6.6%,公共安全、福利等佔38.1%
   
軍事    國防由荷蘭負責。總督任武裝部隊總司令。荷蘭在安的列斯駐紮海軍。
文化教育  
【教育】教育制度與荷蘭相同,實行義務教育制。政府教育開支投入比例比美國和日本都高,佔預算的近三分之一,教育設施良好。全民識字率95%以上。然而也有問題存在,因為許多年青人中學未畢業就移民荷蘭,而由於不會荷蘭語擇業困難。私立教學比較發達,開設本科和研究生課程。1993年有小學86所,學生22410人,中學23所,學生8075人,技術學校37所,學生6247人。另荷屬安的列斯大學有學生627人。
【新聞出版】有七份日報。主要報紙有:《庫拉索朋友報》,荷蘭文版,發行1萬份;《新聞消息報》,荷蘭文版,發行8000份;《消息報》,帕彼曼都語,發行1.2萬份;《新聞報》,帕彼曼都語,發行1.29萬份。
   
主要通訊社為荷蘭通訊社。
   
共有15家廣播電臺。主要有:加勒比廣播電臺,1955年建台,用荷蘭語、英語、西班牙語和帕彼曼都語播音;庫拉索廣播協會:1933年建台,用帕彼曼都語播音;世界廣播電臺:用四種語言對南美、中美、北美和加勒比廣播。
   
有五家電視臺,主要有:背風群島廣播公司電視臺第天播放10小時節目;安的列斯電視臺,成立於1960年,是政府辦的商業電視臺,提供有線電視服務,播放美國衛星電視及兩套委內瑞拉電視臺的節目;庫拉索電視臺。

Once the center of the Caribbean slave trade, the island of Curacao was hard hit by the abolition of slavery in 1863. Its prosperity (and that of neighboring Aruba) was restored in the early 20th century with the construction of oil refineries to service the newly discovered Venezuelan oil fields. The island of Sint Maarten is shared with France; its northern portion is named Saint Martin and is part of Guadeloupe.

Netherlands Antilles    Geography Top of Page
Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - one includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela; the other is east of the Virgin Islands
Geographic coordinates: 12 15 N, 68 45 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total:  960 sq km

land:  960 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)
Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: total:  10.2 km

border countries:  Guadeloupe (Saint Martin) 10.2 km
Coastline: 364 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  12 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds
Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Mount Scenery 862 m
Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)
Land use: arable land:  10%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  90% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt and are rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes from July to October
Environment - current issues: NA
Netherlands Antilles    People Top of Page
Population: 212,226 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  25.21% (male 27,332; female 26,169)

15-64 years:  66.99% (male 67,562; female 74,599)

65 years and over:  7.8% (male 6,874; female 9,690) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.97% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 16.55 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 6.41 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.71 male(s)/female

total population:  0.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  74.94 years

male:  72.76 years

female:  77.22 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Dutch Antillean(s)

adjective:  Dutch Antillean
Ethnic groups: mixed black 85%, Carib Amerindian, white, East Asian
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect) predominates, English widely spoken, Spanish
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98%

male:  98%

female:  99% (1981 est.)
Netherlands Antilles    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Netherlands Antilles

local long form:  none

local short form:  Nederlandse Antillen

former:  Curacao and Dependencies
Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs
Government type: parliamentary
Capital: Willemstad
Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

note:  each island has its own government
Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
National holiday: Queen's Day (Birthday of Queen-Mother JULIANA in 1909 and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX in 1980), 30 April
Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended
Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October 1989)

head of government:  Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 8 November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Susanne CAMELIA-ROMER (since NA)

note:  Miguel POURIER assumed prime ministership following the resignation of Susanne CAMELIA-ROMER

cabinet:  Council of Ministers elected by the Staten

elections:  the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a six-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the Staten; election last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)

note:  government coalition - PDB, DP-St. M, FOL, PLKP, PNP
Legislative branch: unicameral States or Staten (22 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 30 January 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PAR 4, PNP 3, SPA 1, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, PLKP 3, WIPM 1, SEA 1, DP-St. M 2, FOL 2; no party won enough seats to form a government

note:  the government of Prime Minister Miguel POURIER is a coalition of several parties; current seats by party - PAR 4, PNP 3, FOL 2, MAN 2, UPB 2, DP-St. M 2, PDB 1, SEA 1, WIPM 1, other 4
Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (judges appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders: Antillean Restructuring Party or PAR [Miguel POURIER]; C 93 [Stanley BROWN]; Democratic Party of Bonaire or PDB [Jopi ABRAHAM]; Democratic Party of Curacao or DP [Errol HERNANDEZ]; Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius or DP-St. E [Julian WOODLEY]; Democratic Party of Sint Maarten or DP-St. M [Sarah WESCOTT-WILLIAMS]; Foundation Energetic Management Anti-Narcotics or FAME [Eric LODEWIJKS]; Labor Party People's Crusade or PLKP [Errol COVA]; National People's Party or PNP [Susanne F. C. CAMELIA-ROMER]; New Antilles Movement or MAN [Kenneth GIJSBERTHA]; Patriotic Union of Bonaire or UPB [Ramon BOOI]; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten or SPA [Vance JAMES, Jr.]; People's Party or PAPU [Richard Hodi]; Pro Curacao Party or PPK [Winston LOURENS]; Saba Democratic Labor Movement [Steve HASSELL]; Saba Unity Party [Carmen SIMMONDS]; St. Eustatius Alliance or SEA [Kenneth VAN PUTTEN]; Serious Alternative People's Party or Sapp [Julian ROLLOCKS]; Social Action Cause or KAS [Benny DEMEI]; Windward Islands People's Movement or WIPM [Will JOHNSTON]; Workers' Liberation Front or FOL [Anthony GODETT, Rignald LAK, Editha WRIGHT]

note:  political parties are indigenous to each island
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCL, WMO, WToO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Consul General Barbara J. STEPHENSON

consulate(s) general:  J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Willemstad AN, Curacao

mailing address:  P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao

telephone:  [599] (9) 4613066

FAX:  [599] (9) 4616489
Flag description: white, with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a vertical red band, also centered; five white, five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten
Netherlands Antilles    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the mainstays of this small economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. Although GDP has declined slightly in each of the past five years, the islands enjoy a high per capita income and a well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with Venezuela, the US, and Mexico being the major suppliers. Poor soils and inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -3.5% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,400 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1%

industry:  15%

services:  84% (1996 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 89,000
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 13%, services 86% (1994 est.)
Unemployment rate: 14.9% (1998 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $710.8 million

expenditures:  $741.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Industries: tourism (Curacao, Sint Maarten, and Bonaire), petroleum refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 1.11 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 1.032 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: aloes, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, tropical fruit
Exports: $276 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products
Exports - partners: US 17.5%, Guatemala 8%, Costa Rica 6.5%, The Bahamas 4.6%, Jamaica 4.1%, Chile 3.4% (1998)
Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities: crude petroleum, food, manufactures
Imports - partners: Venezuela 35.3%, US 21%, Mexico 9.8%, Italy 5.4%, Netherlands 4.8%, Brazil 3.1% (1998)
Debt - external: $1.35 billion (1996)
Economic aid - recipient: IMF provided $61 million in 2000, and the Netherlands continued its support with $40 million
Currency: Netherlands Antillean guilder (ANG)
Currency code: ANG
Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders per US dollar - 1.790 (fixed rate since 1989)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Netherlands Antilles    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 76,000 (1995)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 13,977 (1996)
Telephone system: general assessment:  generally adequate facilities

domestic:  extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

international:  submarine cables - 2; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 217,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (there is also a cable service which supplies programs received from various US satellite networks and two Venezuelan channels) (1997)
Televisions: 69,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .an
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6
Internet users: 2,000 (2000)
Netherlands Antilles    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  600 km

paved:  300 km

unpaved:  300 km (1992)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Kralendijk, Philipsburg, Willemstad
Merchant marine: total:  123 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,113,774 GRT/1,397,841 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 1, cargo 35, chemical tanker 2, combination ore/oil 3, container 19, liquefied gas 4, multi-functional large-load carrier 19, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 28, roll on/roll off 7

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 8, Germany 1, Italy 1 (2000 est.)
Airports: 5 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  5

over 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Netherlands Antilles    Military Top of Page
Military branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, National Guard, Police Force
Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  54,284 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:  30,405 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  1,610 (2001 est.)
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transshipment point for South American drugs bound for the US and Europe