Flag of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico
波多黎各自由邦

(commonwealth associated with the US)

國歌

    Click for San Juan, Puerto Rico Forecast  

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Puerto Rico

 
Puerto Rico    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

波多黎各自由邦(The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
擁有美國聯邦領土地位(US Commonwealth Territory

   面積 8959平方公里。
   
人口 373萬(1996年),人口密度為416/平方公里。人口中拉美裔人佔99.9%。官方語言為西班牙語和英語。居民主要信奉基督教(81%為天主教信徒)。
   
首府 聖胡安(San Juan),人口43.77萬(1990年)。
   
總督 佩德羅·羅塞略(Pedro Rossello),199611月再次當選。
   
簡況 位於加勒比海大安的列斯群島東部,北臨大西洋,南瀕加勒比海,東與美屬、英屬維爾京群島隔水相望,西隔莫納海峽同多米尼加共和國為鄰。科地勒拉山穿過境內,屬熱帶雨林氣候,雨量充足,1月平均氣溫24℃,7月平均氣溫27℃。
原為印第安人居住地。1493年哥倫布第二次去美洲大陸時抵達此島。1509年淪為西班牙殖民地。1869年,波人民起義,宣佈成立共和國,遭西班牙殖民軍鎮壓。1897年實現內部自治。1898年美西戰爭後割讓給美國。1917年,波多黎各人被賦予美國公民權。波多黎各居民可以參加美國全國的政黨初選,但不能參加美國總統大選。1947年開始自行選舉總督。1952年通過的憲法規定,在實現內部自治的前提下,保持與美國的聯繫,美國會通過法案給予波多黎各美國聯邦領土地位(即在內部事務方面享有最高自治地位)。在199311月的全民投票中,48%的人贊成保持美國聯邦領土地位,46%贊成擁有美國州的地位,4%的人贊成完全獨立。
政治 目前,波多黎各維持美國聯邦領土地位,但憲法地位問題(即與美國關係的法律地位問題)仍是內部爭執的焦點。目前的主要爭執點是維持目前的美國聯邦領土地位還是成為美國之一州。
【憲法】 根據1952年通過的憲法,總督為最高行政長官,由選舉產生,任期四年。下設部長會議。美國國會有權廢止波多黎各議會通過的法律。
【議會】 分參眾兩院。參議員28人,眾議員54人,任期四年。由於不實行美國稅務法律,該島在美國國會無代表權。該島人民選舉出地方代表常駐美國國會,只在眾院各委員會參加表決。目前駐美國國會代表為安妮巴爾·阿塞維多-比洛(Anibal Acevedo-Bilo)。新進步黨(PNP)在兩院均擁有多數席位。
【政府】 總督擁有行政權,也是民兵總司令,有權宣佈戒嚴,任期四年。總督佩德羅·羅塞略,國務卿諾曼·伯格斯·安杜伽(Norman Burgos Andujar)。
【政黨】 1)人民民主黨(Partido Popular Democratico):1938年成立。1948年實行選舉產生總督以來,該黨曾多次執政。現任主席海克托·路易斯·阿塞維多(Hector Luis Acevedo)。
2)新進步黨(Partido Nuevo Progresista:1967年成立。196811月選舉獲勝,1992年再度上臺執政。現任主席為佩德羅·羅塞里奧。
3)波多黎各獨立黨(Partido de la Independencia Puertoriqueno):1946年成立。主席魯本·貝里奧斯(Ruben Berrios)。
其他政黨有波多黎各社會黨、共產黨等。
波人民的生活水平在拉美居首位。工業、製造業、旅遊業、服裝業和電子業為主要生產部門。製造業產值佔國民生產總值的41%。建築業產值1987年為25億美元。能源生產發展較快,1985年水力和沼氣發電量為119.38億度,其他電力發電量為2.09億度。由於基礎設施不足,經濟增長受到很大制約。美國聯邦援助項目對波經濟至關重要。近年來,波注重與加勒比地區和拉美國家發展經濟關係。正致力於將本島建成拉美國家面向美加自由貿易區成員的製成品加工中心。由於人口密集,就業形勢一直嚴峻。近年來旅遊業發展迅速。失業率從1985年的21%下降到1996年的13.8%
國內生產總值(1996年):454億美元。
人均國民收入(1993年):7000美元。
貨幣:使用美元。
失業率(1996年):13.8%
【工業】 1996年,工業產值佔國民生產總值的43.5%。主要有機械製造、建築、採礦、化工、塑料、石油、食品加工和飲料等行業,從業人口佔勞動總人口的20%。
【農業】 主要生產棉花、咖啡、甘薯、煙草、水果等。1994年漁業捕獲量2240噸。1996年,林業和漁業佔國民生產總值的0.7%,從業人口佔勞動總人口的2.9%。
【服務業】 1996年,服務業產值佔國民生產總值的58%,從業人口佔勞動總人口的76%。
【旅遊業】 1995/1996年度,接待遊客達411萬人次,旅遊收入近19億美元,72%的遊客來自美國。主要名勝有:蓬塞藝術博物館、聖胡安老城、聖胡安大教堂、雲蓋雨林和波多黎各16世紀-17世紀家庭博物館等。
【交通運輸】 運輸業較發達。1987年擁有汽車108萬輛。波為加勒比地區空運中心,聖胡安、蓬塞、馬亞古埃斯均為海空良港。
【財政金融】 1995/1996年度,預算總收入78.5億美元。
【對外貿易】 1996年,進出口總額分別為190億和229億美元。主要貿易夥伴除美國大陸外,還有日本、英國、多米尼加、委內瑞拉、美屬薩摩亞等。同美國的進出口貿易分別佔其進出口總額的62.5%87.8%,其中出口藥品佔美國全國藥品的50%左右。
美國負責其防務。實行義務兵役制,擁有主要由美國聯邦政府提供預算的國民警衛隊1.1萬人。美在波有軍事基地七個,駐軍5萬人。其中,羅斯福羅茲基地是世界最大的海軍基地,每年可接納4.5萬架次飛機和1200艘艦隻。
文化教育 【教育】 6歲-16歲兒童實行免費義務教育。授課用西班牙語進行,但所有年級英語都是必修課。有公立中小學1782所,私立中小學818所,在校學生約63萬人(1996年);高等學校69所(其中以聖胡安大學、波多黎各大學等三所公立大學規模最大)。1980年成人文盲率為12%。
【新聞出版】主要報紙:《世界報》、《新日報》、《聖胡安明星報》等。廣播電臺118個,電視臺15個。
對外關係 為聯合國拉美及加勒比經社理事會准成員,擁有加勒比共同體和共同市場的觀察員地位。由於美國反對加勒比國家聯盟(成立於1994年)接受古巴為其成員,波多黎各沒有接受該聯盟的准成員地位。

Discovered by Columbus in 1493, the island was ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. A popularly elected governor has served since 1948. In plebiscites held in 1967 and 1993, voters chose to retain commonwealth status.

Puerto Rico    Geography Top of Page
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total:  9,104 sq km

land:  8,959 sq km

water:  145 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 501 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly mountains, with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Cerro de Punta 1,338 m
Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil
Land use: arable land:  4%

permanent crops:  5%

permanent pastures:  26%

forests and woodland:  16%

other:  49% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; hurricanes
Environment - current issues: erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages
Geography - note: important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north
Puerto Rico    People Top of Page
Population: 3,937,316 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  23.73% (male 478,441; female 455,800)

15-64 years:  65.72% (male 1,242,245; female 1,345,421)

65 years and over:  10.55% (male 177,083; female 238,326) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.54% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 15.26 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 7.77 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.74 male(s)/female

total population:  0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 9.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  75.76 years

male:  71.28 years

female:  80.48 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)

adjective:  Puerto Rican
Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish origin) 80.5%, black 8%, Amerindian 0.4%, Asian 0.2%, mixed and other 10.9%
Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%
Languages: Spanish, English
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  89%

male:  90%

female:  88% (1980 est.)
Puerto Rico    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

conventional short form:  Puerto Rico
Dependency status: commonwealth associated with the US
Government type: commonwealth
Capital: San Juan
Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular - municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey, Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado, Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos, Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati, Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito, Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco
Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)
National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952
Legal system: based on Spanish civil code
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state:  President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)

head of government:  Governor Sila M. CALDERON (since NA January 2001)

cabinet:  appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature

elections:  US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results:  Sila M. CALDERON (PDP) elected governor; percent of vote - 48.8%
Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (28 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (54 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004); House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PNP 19, PPD 7, PIP 1, other 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PNP 30, PPD 20, PIP 1, other 3

note:  Puerto Rico elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of Representatives; elections last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPD 1 (Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Superior Courts; Municipal Courts (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate)
Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party [Celeste BENITEZ]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Luis FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO]; Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Hector Luis ACEVEDO]; Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN; Armed Forces of Popular Resistance; Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCL, WFTU, WHO (associate)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center; design influenced by the US flag, but based on the Cuban flag
Puerto Rico    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has surpassed agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income, with estimated arrivals of nearly 5 million tourists in 1999. Prospects for 2001 are clouded by a probable slowing down in both the construction and tourist sectors and by increasing inflation, particularly in energy and food prices; estimated growth will be 2%.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $39 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1%

industry:  45%

services:  54% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 1.3 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 3%, industry 20%, services 77% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.5% (2000)
Budget: revenues:  $6.7 billion

expenditures:  $9.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00)
Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 16.76 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  98.45%

hydro:  1.55%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 15.587 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock products, chickens
Exports: $38.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment
Exports - partners: US 88% (2000)
Imports: $27 billion (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities: chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
Imports - partners: US 60% (2000)
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: US dollar (USD)
Currency code: USD
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Puerto Rico    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 1.322 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 169,265 (1996)
Telephone system: general assessment:  modern system, integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability

domestic:  digital telephone system; cellular telephone service

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US
Radio broadcast stations: AM 72, FM 17, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 2.7 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 18 (plus three stations of the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service) (1997)
Televisions: 1.021 million (1997)
Internet country code: .pr
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 76 (2000)
Internet users: 110,000 (2000)
Puerto Rico    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: total:  96 km

narrow gauge:  96 km 1.000-m gauge, rural, narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger service
Highways: total:  14,400 km

paved:  14,400 km

unpaved:  0 km (1996)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San Juan
Airports: 28 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  19

over 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  7

under 914 m:  6 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  9

914 to 1,523 m:  2

under 914 m:  7 (2000 est.)
Puerto Rico    Military Top of Page
Military branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US
Puerto Rico    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none