Flag of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
聖皮埃爾和密克隆群島

(territorial collectivity of France)

    Click for Saint-pierre, Reunion Island Forecast  

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

聖皮埃爾和密克隆群島
The  Islands   of  St Pierre  and  Miquelon
Iles SaintQPierreQetQMiquelon

面積 242平方公里。其中聖皮埃爾島26平方公里 ,密克隆島115平方公里和朗格拉德島91平方公里。D
人口  6316(1999年統計),人口密度 26.1人/平方公里,出生率92?,死亡率51?。居民多為法國移民後裔。官方語言為法語 99%的居民信奉天主教。D
首府  聖皮埃爾市(SaintQPierre)。擁有人口5616人。D
行政長官  弗朗西·斯皮澤爾(Francis Spitzer 20002月任職。D
    位於 北美洲加拿大紐芬蘭島以南25公里的北大西洋中。全境由聖皮埃爾、密克隆、朗格拉德等 八個島嶼組成,密克隆島和朗格拉德島由一沙石地峽相連。冬季寒冷,最低氣溫達-20℃ ,夏季平均氣溫1020℃。年降水量1400毫米。D
 1520
年,該群島被葡萄牙人發現。1536年,法國人雅克·卡蒂耶命名該群島為聖皮 埃爾和密克隆。1604年,法國漁民在此建立第一個永久性居民點。此後200年中,英法交替佔領該島。1816年被法國佔 領。1914年,根據《巴黎和約》,該群島歸法國所有。1946年改為法國海外領地, 19767月改為法海外省。19856月成為法國海外集體領地。法國政府任命一名 行政長官為其代表。防務由法國負責。聖皮埃爾和密克隆群島在法國國民議會和參議院各選 派一名議員。19886月、19933月,法國民主聯盟的熱拉爾·格里尼翁連任法國國民議會議員。D
   1995年舉行第二輪法國參議院議員選舉,保衛共和聯盟候選人維克多·雷烏克當選。19976月,格里尼翁在第二輪法國國民議會議員選舉時,以52.34%的選票再次當選
 2000
6月,法國議會就關於海外省的社會和經濟發展等 問題的方案進行辯論,同時決定增加該島的財政自治權。D
【議會】地方議會,也稱省議會。有19名議員組成,其中聖皮埃爾島15名,密克隆島4名,由普選產生,任期六年。議長伯納德·萊索亞韋克( Bernard Lesoavec)。D
【政府】由法國政府委派的行政長官、 地方議會19名議員、聖皮埃爾和密克隆群島選出的1名法國國民議會代表和1名參議院代表組成、20002月政府主要成員有:行政長官兼經濟和社會委員會主席弗朗西·斯皮澤爾(Francis Spitzer), 法國國民議會議員熱拉爾·格里尼翁(Gerard Grignon),法國參議院議員維克多·雷烏克(Victor  Reux)。D
【司法機構】在聖皮埃爾設初審法庭和高等上訴法庭。 初審法庭法官帕斯卡爾·瑪利斯 ( Pascal  Mathis),高等上訴法庭庭長弗朗索瓦· 比龍(Francois Billon)。
【政黨】主要政黨均與法國政黨聯繫密切,有社會黨(P arti  Socialiste,左翼黨,1996年成立)、保衛共和聯盟(Rassemblemen  pour  la  epublique,戴高樂派)、法國民主聯盟(Union   pour  la  emocratie  Francaise,中間派)及社會民 主人士中心(Centre des Democrates Sociaux)D
   該島人均國民生產總值7690美元(1998年)。
因土質和氣候條件不適宜農業生產,只有少量的蔬菜種植、養豬及蛋禽生產。主要的傳統經濟是漁業及其加工業。近年來因與加拿大發生海域和捕魚定額之爭,漁業生產受到嚴重影響。該島可望對具有潛力的貝殼類動物,特別是扇貝資源進行開發。對來往船隻,主要是拖網漁船 提供給養服務曾是重要的經濟收入之一,目前也因漁業生產不景氣而蕭條。政府仍將開發港口和擴大旅遊業作為保持經濟發展的主要手段,在財政方面仍指望法國政府給予資助。1998年勞動總人口為3000人,失業率為10.6%
【工業】主要為漁業產品加工業。從業人口佔勞動總人口41%。1990年總產量5457噸。有兩家火力發電廠,發電能力23兆瓦。
【漁業】為主要傳統經濟。1996年從業人口佔勞動總人口18.5%。1997年捕魚量為89噸。D
【旅遊業】為重要經濟部門。有1家旅行社、80家旅館。1999年接待遊客 估計為10300人次。遊客主要來自美國、加拿大。D
【交通運輸】以海空運輸為主。1997年有汽車3876輛。
海運:聖皮埃爾港碼頭長1200米,有三艘汽船。從聖皮埃爾港至加拿大哈利法克斯、新 斯科舍及美國波士頓有集裝箱航線。1997年進港輪船918艘,進港貨運量21480噸。D
空運:聖皮埃爾有一機場,航線通往法國和加拿大。1999年建成一新的機場,能起降大型飛機。有兩家航空公司:聖皮埃爾航空公司航線從該群島通往加拿大西德尼,並有直航達哈利法克斯、新斯科舍、蒙特利爾、魁北克等地;地方航空公司航線從群島通往紐芬蘭島。 1997年客運量30341人次,貨運量105噸。
【財政金融】1997年財政預算支出2.44億法郎 ,其中經常性開支1.28億法郎,基本建設支出1.16億法郎。1997年法國援款2.8億法郎。D
主要銀行有:聖皮埃爾和密克隆群島銀行(Banque  des  Iles  aint Q ierreQetQMiquelon):1889年成立。截至199712月,有資 2500萬法郎,儲備金270萬法郎,存款2.62億法郎。董事長兼總經理紀堯姆·德 ·查律斯(Guillaume de Chalus)。D
聖皮埃爾信貸銀行(Credit Saint Pierrais):1962年成立。 截至199812月,有資本3650萬法郎,儲備金300萬法郎,存款2.86億法郎。董事長居伊·西 (Guy Simon),總經理皮埃爾斯佩特(Pierre Spieth)D
【對外貿易】1998年進口額3.82億法郎,出口額3590 法郎。主要出口魚和魚肉,主要進口燃料、建築材料、食品、服裝及其他日用品。主要貿易 物件是加拿大、美國、法國及其他歐盟國家。D
人民生活  居民 享受與法國公民同等的社會福利待遇。199112月至199612月,物價平均上 2.1%。1991年物價指數(1981年=100)為196.51997年有一所綜合性醫院,其中有養老院和殘疾人中心。1997年有收音機5000台,電視機3500 台。D
文化教育  【教育】實施與法國相同的教育制度,對616歲兒 童實行免 費義務教育。1997年在校生共有1600多人。
【新聞出版】主要報刊有:《政府公報》,月刊,1866年創辦;《自由之風》,月刊,發行量350份;《回聲報》,周刊,發行量2500份;《紐帶》,保衛共和聯盟機關報,一年發行6期。D
法國海外廣播電視臺為政府創辦。電臺每天播音24小時;電視臺有2個頻道,每 周播放195小時電視節目。D
大西洋電臺為私人電臺,每天播音24小時。總經理兼董事長羅傑吉喬特(Roger Guichot).

First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.

Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Geography Top of Page
Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)
Geographic coordinates: 46 50 N, 56 20 W
Map references: North America
Area: total:  242 sq km

land:  242 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups
Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 120 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy
Terrain: mostly barren rock
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m
Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use: arable land:  13%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  4%

other:  83% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: vegetation scanty
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    People Top of Page
Population: 6,928 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  25.85% (male 917; female 874)

15-64 years:  64.22% (male 2,273; female 2,176)

65 years and over:  9.93% (male 291; female 397) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.43% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 15.88 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 6.64 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: -4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.73 male(s)/female

total population:  1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 8.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  77.77 years

male:  75.51 years

female:  80.13 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective:  French
Ethnic groups: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Religions: Roman Catholic 99%
Languages: French
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  99%

male:  99%

female:  99% (1982 est.)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

conventional short form:  Saint Pierre and Miquelon

local long form:  Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

local short form:  Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
Dependency status: self-governing territorial collectivity of France
Government type: NA
Capital: Saint-Pierre
Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions approved by the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon
Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)
Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system: French law with special adaptations for local conditions, such as housing and taxation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Remi THUAU (since NA)

head of government:  President of the General Council Bernard LE SOAVEC (since NA 1996)

cabinet:  NA

elections:  French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 7 May 1995 (next to be held NA May 2002); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council
Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections:  elections last held NA April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2006)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

note:  Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last held NA September 1995 (next to be held NA September 2004); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 seat to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDF 1
Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR [leader NA]; Socialist Party or PS [leader NA]; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: FZ, WFTU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)
Flag description: a yellow sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a dark blue background with a black wave line under the ship; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the square into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one on top of the other; the flag of France is used for official occasions
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. The islands are heavily subsidized by France to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $74 million (1996 est.); supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,000 (1996 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1991-96 average)
Labor force: 3,000 (1997)
Labor force - by occupation: fishing 18%, industry (mainly fish-processing) 41%, services 41% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.8% (1997)
Budget: revenues:  $70 million

expenditures:  $60 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)
Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 37.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
Exports: $12 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts
Exports - partners: US 43%, Egypt 14%, Japan 11%, Colombia 8% (1999)
Imports: $55 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Imports - commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
Imports - partners: France 44%, Canada 40% (1999)
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: approximately $65 million in annual grants from France
Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)
Currency code: FRF; EUR
Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.06594 (January 2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)
Telephone system: general assessment:  adequate

domestic:  NA

international:  radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 4,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 0 (there are, however, two repeaters which rebroadcast programs from France, Canada, and the US) (1997)
Televisions: 4,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .pm
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: NA
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  114 km

paved:  69 km

unpaved:  45 km (1994 est.)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Saint Pierre
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France
Saint Pierre and Miquelon    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none