Flag of San Marino

San Marino
聖馬力諾共和國

國歌

     

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   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of San Marino

 
San Marino    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

聖馬力諾共和國
he Republic of San Marino
La Repubblica di San Marino

    面積  61.19平方公里。
 
人口  25,515人(199612月),90%為聖馬力諾人。官方語言為義大利語。居民大多信奉天主教。
 
首都  聖馬力諾(San Marino),人口約4,335人。
 
國家元首  由兩名權力相等的執政官共同擔任,任期半年,不能連任,三年後可再次當選。執政官由大議會選舉產生,每年分別於3月和9月改選,41日和101日就職。執政官既是國家元首,又是政府和議會首腦。2000101日至2001331日,吉安·佛朗哥·泰倫齊(Gian Franco Terenzi)和恩佐·科隆比尼(Enzo Colombini)任執政官。
 
重要節日  國慶:93
 
簡況  位於歐洲亞平寧半島東北部的內陸國。四周與義大利接壤。屬亞熱帶地中海式氣候。冬季最低氣溫-2℃,夏季最高氣溫30℃。年均降水量880毫米。最早由一位叫馬力諾的基督徒石匠建于西元4世紀。自城市國家時期起,才象義大利的城市一樣向“國家”發展。西元1314世紀屬羅馬教皇的管區,後並入烏爾比諾(URBINO)大公國,1631年烏爾比諾大公國被教皇國吞併,1739年被阿爾貝羅尼(ALBERONI)紅衣主教佔領,17402月聖議會恢復行使權力。
 
政治  1998531日舉行大選,天民黨和社會黨獲勝。
 
【憲法】現行憲法起源於14世紀,17世紀正式通過,稱為“第一號憲章”,其後稍有修改。
 
【議會】一院制,名為大議會,由兩名執政官主持。其任務是立法、選舉執政官、通過財政預算、批准條約和任命高級官員等。有60名議員,由全國按比例制普選產生,任期5年。議會有權討論並通過法律,但需待執政官公佈、內政部發表公報後方可生效。議會任命政府成員,批准執政官任命書。各政黨在議會中席位分配如下:天民黨佔25席,社會黨佔14席,民進黨佔11席,人民聯盟佔6席,改革社會黨人佔2席,共產黨重建佔2席。
 
【政府】政府成員10人,均由大議會任命。不設總理,外長起總理作用。外長加布里埃萊·加蒂(Gabriele Gatti),內政和民事保護部長安東尼奧·沃爾皮納里(Antonio Volpinari),財政、預算和規劃部長克萊里奧·加拉西(Clelio Galassi),工業、手工業和經濟合作部長弗奧倫佐·斯托爾費(Fiorenzo Stolfi),公共教育、文化和司法部長聖·坎杜奇(Sante Canducci),領土、環保和農業部長奧古斯都·卡薩利(Augusto Casali),郵電、交通、旅遊和體育部長克勞迪奧·波代斯基(Claudio Podeschi),衛生和社會保障部長盧恰諾·恰瓦塔(Luciano Ciavatta),勞工合作部長羅米歐·莫里(Romeo Morri),商業部長凱薩·卡斯佩羅尼(Cesare Gasperoni)。
【政黨】(1)聖馬力諾天主教民主黨(Partito Democristiano Sammarinese):執政黨。成立於1948年,聖第一大黨,有2400名黨員。總書記皮埃爾·馬里諾·梅尼古奇(Pier Marino Menicucci)
2)聖馬力諾社會黨(Paritito Socialista Sammarinese):執政黨。1892年成立,199111日同聖馬力諾統一社會黨和社會民主黨合併,約有黨員1100名。總書記安東尼奧·沃爾比納里(Antonio Volpinari)。
3)民主進步黨(Partito Progressista Democratico):在野黨。為聖第二大黨,1941年成立,原名聖馬力諾共產黨,1990430日改現名。約有黨員1200人。總書記斯特法諾·馬齊納(Stefano Macina)。
此外還有人民聯盟、民主運動、共產黨重建等小黨。
經濟  戰後經濟穩步發展,結構發生了根本性變化。近10年來,第三產業發展迅速。從過去的農業國變成了一個工業和第三產業十分發達的國家。1995年就業人口中第三產業佔39.4%。60年代以來,旅遊、商業和工業持續發展,國內生產總值大幅增長。中小企業是聖經濟的支柱,以服裝、機械製造、電子設備、化工、釀酒為主,工業產值和手工業產值分別佔國民收入的25%和10%。旅遊業收入佔國家財政收入的30%。聖發行的郵票和紀念幣聞名於世。在經濟上同義大利關係極為密切。自然資源貧乏。近年經濟數位如下:
 
國內生產總值(1997年):約4.65億美元。
 
人均國內生產總值(1997年):約19375美元。
 
貨幣名稱:義大利里拉。
 
匯率(1999年平均匯率  ):1美元=1819里拉。
 
通貨膨脹率(1996年):71%。
 
失業率(1996年):3.9%。
   
【工業】主要工業部門有紡織、服裝、水泥、制革、造紙、陶瓷等。工業產值佔國民收入的25%。1995年從事製造業和建築業的人口佔總勞力的40.9%。鋁製品廠是歐洲最大的鋁製品廠之一。
 
【農業】農業日益衰退,可耕地面積6000公頃。1995年從業人口佔總勞力的1.5%。主要農產品有葡萄、橄欖、小麥、玉米。
 
【旅遊業】旅遊業發達,是國民經濟的支柱。每年約接待遊客300500萬人次,旅遊業收入佔國家財政收入的4550%。有大小旅館近800家。
 
【交通運輸】無鐵路和機場,僅有公路,總長220公里。到19919月底,共有汽車28891輛。
 
【財政金融】財政收入主要來源於稅收、發行郵票和世界聞名的紀念幣。此外,按照同義大利簽訂的新協定,義大利自1987年起每年向聖提供90億里拉的海關補貼和200億里拉的低息貸款(35年內還清)。1996年聖財政預算為7360億里拉。
 
【對外貿易】1986年進口額為4290萬美元,出口額為3200萬美元。從義大利進口石油製品、工業原料、電力、糧食和副食品。
 
【人民生活】全體公民享受公費醫療。1995年平均每2.9人有一台電視機,每1.5人有一部電話。
 
軍事  大議會衛隊:成立於1740年,當時用於保衛大議會及執政官,目前為執政官儀仗隊。
 
城堡衛隊:主要負責對政府機構常規服務與巡邏,在重大儀式中組成儀仗隊炮兵,必要時與憲兵合作。
 
民兵:建於1600年,1655歲的公民均可參加。在特殊時刻協助憲兵與警察。
 
憲兵:建於1842年。負責預防及打擊犯罪,維護公共秩序,保護公民及其財產安全,監督法律與法規的執行等。
 
市政警察:建於1963年。它不屬於軍隊建制,但可與憲兵合作,負責管理交通並維持民事、工業、商業、金融及稅收秩序。
 
文化教育
 
【教育】實行小學、初中義務教育。掃盲率達985%,1986年有小學14所,學生1370人,教師173人;中學3所,學生940人,教師140人。有工業技術學校、音樂學校、藝術修復中心各一所。此外還有一些專業培訓班和夜校。國家對出國上大學者給予補助。
 
【新聞出版】無官方報紙,只有幾種不定期發行的刊物。《新聞》,外交部主辦;《聖馬力諾》,天民黨主辦;《火花》,民進黨主辦;《新蒂塔諾》,社會黨主辦 1993年建立了聖馬力諾廣播電視臺。有電臺和電視臺各一家。
 
對外關係  聖外交政策的宗旨是維護國家的獨立和主權,願意同一切友好的國家發展關係,奉行積極中立的外交政策,主張大小國家一律平等,致力於促進合作與穩定,為建設和平、公正的世界而努力;認為世界正在經歷著深刻變化,世界局勢由緊張對峙走向安全與合作;主張各國增強相互信任與合作,通過和平方式解決地區緊張局勢。近年來,聖積極參加國際活動和發展同國際組織的關係。19879月向聯合國派駐觀察員,199232日加入聯合國。同年9月加入國際貨幣基金組織。目前聖已是18個國際組織的正式成員。聖是歐洲委員會成員國,1990511月曾任該委員會部長委員會主席。聖簽署了歐安會赫爾辛基最後文件,參與了歐洲安全與合作組織的創建。聖同中國、義大利、法國、比利時、埃及、梵蒂岡、奧地利、瑞典、捷克、馬耳他騎士團建有大使級外交關係,同美、加、英、德、日、印度、西班牙等30多個國家建有領事級正式關係。聖向60多個國家派駐外交代表和領事。
 
【同中國的關係】197156日建立領事級正式關係。1991715日起升格為大使級外交關係。1995719,聖任命薩維娜·紮費拉尼(Savina Zafferani)為首任駐華大使(非常駐)。聖訪華的主要有:外長吉龍齊(1972);社會黨主席賈科米尼(1983);外長雷菲(1985,並簽訂兩國互免簽證協定);聖共總書記巴魯利(1983),吉奧蒂(1987);司法文教部長莫爾甘蒂(1987年);執政官吉安·佛朗哥·泰倫齊和羅薩諾·紮費拉尼(1988);外長加蒂(1991年);內政部長塞爾瓦(1991);財政部長加拉西(1994);工業部長斯托爾菲和勞工部長波德西(1995)。中國訪聖的有:政府代表、駐法大使黃鎮(1971);郵電部長鍾夫翔(1977);黃華外長(1979);中共中央書記處書記胡?立(1983);周南副外長(1985年);中共中央政治局委員喬石(1986);吳學謙外長(1987);陝西省省長侯宗賓(1988年);黑龍江省省委書記孫維本(1988年);中共中央政治局委員宋平(1989年);全國對外友協會長韓敘(1993年);錢其琛副總理兼外長(1998年)和王光亞副外長(2000年)。兩國於1980年簽訂了文化教育合作協定,1985年簽定互免簽證協定(這是中國與西方國家首次簽署此類協定)。19965月,為慶祝中聖建交25周年,雙方分別舉辦聯合發行郵票儀式,郵電部副部長劉平源出席了在北京舉行的儀式,聖財政部長卡拉西出席了在聖舉行的儀式。19977月,聖駐華大使紮費拉尼來京出席香港回歸慶祝活動。
 
中聖兩國自1988年起開始直接貿易往來,但貿易額很小。1998年中國同聖馬力諾進出口的商品額為10.6萬美元。1999年中聖貿易額為34萬美元,比1998年增長219.8%。2000年中聖貿易額為30萬美元,均為中方出口,比1999年下降11.8%。
 
中國駐義大利大使程文棟兼任駐聖馬力諾大使。
   
館址:Via Bruxelles 56 00198  Roma
   
值班室電話:8413458  
   
傳真:85352891
 
聖馬力諾在華未設使館,但派有非常駐中國大使薩維娜·紮費拉尼。
 
【同義大利的關係】聖意關係十分密切。聖重視改善和發展同義大利的關係。早在1897年,兩國就簽有“友好睦鄰條約”,1971年簽訂“友好睦鄰條約”的補充協定,將強加於聖的“保護性友誼”改為“永久性友誼”。1979年兩國外交關係由總領事級升為大使級。1990年、1991年意總統訪聖。
 
【同美國的關係】聖重視對美關係。1960年美向聖贈款85萬美元,為聖修建一條輸水管。聖外長曾三次訪美。
 
【同前蘇聯各共和國的關係】19918月,宣佈承認愛沙尼亞、拉脫維亞、立陶宛三國的獨立並與其建立正式關係。
 
【同法國的關係】聖法關係良好。聖在法有千名僑民。1885年聖向法派駐公使,法是最早與聖建立外交關係的國家。1982年聖國家元首訪法。
 
【同歐盟的關係】1983年與歐洲共同體建立外交關係。19849月,聖外長訪問歐共體時要求放寬對聖的外貿限制,在制定預算時應把聖考慮在內。1986年雙方就此達成協定。1991年,雙方簽訂了合作和關稅聯盟協定。

The third smallest state in Europe (after The Holy See and Monaco) also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in 301 A.D. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy. Social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.

San Marino    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total:  61.2 sq km

land:  61.2 sq km

water:  0 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: total:  39 km

border countries:  Italy 39 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain: rugged mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Torrente Ausa 55 m

highest point:  Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources: building stone
Land use: arable land:  17%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  83% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: NA
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution
Geography - note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
San Marino    People Top of Page
Population: 27,336 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  15.88% (male 2,241; female 2,100)

15-64 years:  67.94% (male 9,048; female 9,525)

65 years and over:  16.18% (male 1,902; female 2,520) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.45% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 10.76 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 11.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.75 male(s)/female

total population:  0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  81.23 years

male:  77.68 years

female:  85.1 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective:  Sammarinese
Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic
Languages: Italian
Literacy: definition:  age 10 and over can read and write

total population:  96%

male:  97%

female:  95% (1976 est.)
San Marino    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of San Marino

conventional short form:  San Marino

local long form:  Repubblica di San Marino

local short form:  San Marino
Government type: independent republic
Capital: San Marino
Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle
Independence: 3 September 301
National holiday: Founding of the Republic, 3 September (301)
Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  cochiefs of state Captain Regent Luigi LONFERNINI and Captain Regent Fabio BERARDI (for the period 1 April 2001-30 September 2001)

head of government:  Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986)

cabinet:  Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term

elections:  cochiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA March 2001 (next to be held NA September 2001); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held NA June 1998 (next to be held NA June 2003)

election results:  Luigi LONFERNINI and Fabio BERARDI elected captain regents; percent of legislative vote - NA; Gabriele GATTI reelected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA

note:  the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (cochiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has ten other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are three secretaries of state - Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance - and several additional secretaries; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed many of the prerogatives of a prime minister
Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 31 May 1998 (next likely to be held by NA June 2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PDCS 40.8%, PSS 23.3%, PPDS 18.6%, APDS 9.8%, RC 3.3%, SR 4.2%; seats by party - PDCS 25, PSS 14, PPDS 11, APDS 6, RC 2, SR 2
Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Political parties and leaders: Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Pier Marino MENICUCCI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or APDS [Mario VENTURINI]; San Marino Progressive Democratic Party or PPDS [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Augusto CASALI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CE, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO
Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an embassy in the US

honorary consulate(s) general:  Washington, DC, and New York

honorary consulate(s):  Detroit
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)
San Marino    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1999 more than 3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $860 million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $32,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2000)
Labor force: 18,500 (1999)
Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 38%, agriculture 2% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3% (1999)
Budget: revenues:  $400 million

expenditures:  $400 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production: NA kWh
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%
Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh

note:  electric power supplied by Italy (1999)
Electricity - imports: NA kWh

note:  electricity supplied by Italy
Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: Italian lira (ITL); euro (EUR)
Currency code: ITL; EUR
Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.06594 (January 2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996)
Fiscal year: calendar year
San Marino    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,010 (1998)
Telephone system: general assessment:  adequate connections

domestic:  automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system

international:  connected to Italian international network
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
Televisions: 9,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .sm
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: NA
San Marino    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km; note - there is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore
Highways: total:  220 km

paved:  220 km

unpaved:  0 km (2001)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: none
Airports: none
San Marino    Military Top of Page
Military branches: Voluntary Military Force, Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $700,000 (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%
San Marino    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none