Flag of Svalbard

Svalbard
斯瓦爾巴群島

(territory of Norway)

國歌

   Click for Svalbard, Norway Forecast  

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Svalbard

 
Svalbard    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

斯瓦爾巴群島
The Svalbard archipelago
主權屬於挪威王國

   面積   61,229平方公里。
   
人口   2591人(19981月)。其中包括1,433名挪威人,1149名俄羅斯和烏克蘭人,9名波蘭人。人口密度0.04/平方公里。
   
首府   朗伊爾城(Longyearbyen),位於斯匹次卑爾根島。人口約1100人。
簡況   位於北冰洋,南距挪威北海岸657公里,由9個主島和?多小島組成。近60%的區域被冰川覆蓋。年平均氣溫最高7℃,最低-22℃;年均降水量約200毫米。
12
世紀由北歐海盜首先發現,17世紀成為重要的捕鯨中心,20世紀初發現煤炭資源。幾個世紀以來,英國、荷蘭、丹麥和挪威等國對其提出主權要求。192029日,14個國家簽署條約,承認挪威對該島擁有主權。根據斯瓦爾巴條約,通行權和經濟開發權為國際社會共用,但嚴禁將該島用於戰爭目的或修建軍事設施。1925年,斯瓦爾巴群島正式並入挪威。目前,除波蘭建有一小型長期研究站外,只有挪威和俄羅斯、烏克蘭在島上有居民定居。
政治  斯瓦爾巴總督既是最高行政長官,也是最高司法長官。總督由挪政府任命,向挪司法部極地事務司負責。任期三年,可延長兩年。現任總督莫爾滕·呂德(Morten Ruud1998年任命)。挪極地研究所負責提供政策諮詢服務。另設一名礦務專員負責管理當地煤炭資源的開發利用,現任專員約翰內斯·維克(Johannes Vik1980年任命)。
經濟  經濟活動十分有限,主要經營採煤業。
   
【財政金融】  通用挪威克朗。1998年財政預算為8650萬克朗,其中6180萬克朗由挪政府直接撥款。一部分收入來自出售捕魚許可證。
   
【資源】  煤炭資源蘊藏豐富,挪威和俄羅斯各經營有兩個煤礦。1998年共產煤63.2萬噸,其中挪方佔35.6萬噸。其他礦藏包括鐵、磷酸鹽、亞硫酸鹽、石棉、硬石膏和石灰石等。
   
【交通】  對外交通主要通過空運和海運。朗伊爾城建有機場和深水海港,每周五次航班直飛挪威北部城市特羅姆瑟,海運僅限678三個月。此外還有俄羅斯修建的直升機站、移動雷達站等少量航空設施。1998年航空客運量5.95萬人次。
   1998
年底,機動車總數859輛;其中小汽車500輛,客車36輛,貨車242輛,摩托車81輛。
   
【旅遊】  1994年有212個團組共940人訪問了該島,其中旅遊團169個,科學考察團34個。
人民生活  島上娛樂、交通、金融和教育設施很少。僅有一所醫院。有4所初級學校,1998/99年度共有在校生248名。

First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century, the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.

Svalbard    Geography Top of Page
Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway
Geographic coordinates: 78 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references: Arctic Region
Area: total:  62,049 sq km

land:  62,049 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 3,587 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia

territorial sea:  4 NM
Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Arctic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Newtontoppen 1,717 m
Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (no trees, and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area
Svalbard    People Top of Page
Population: 2,332 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  NA%

15-64 years:  NA%

65 years and over:  NA%
Population growth rate: -3.55% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population
Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  NA years

male:  NA years

female:  NA years
Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0% (2001)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 0 (2001)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 0 (2001)
Ethnic groups: Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)
Languages: Russian, Norwegian
Svalbard    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)
Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway
Government type: NA
Capital: Longyearbyen
Independence: none (territory of Norway)
National holiday: NA
Legal system: NA
Executive branch: chief of state:  King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)

head of government:  Governor Morten RUUD (since NA November 1998) and Assistant Governor Odd Redar HUMLEGAARD (since NA)

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
International organization participation: none
Flag description: the flag of Norway is used
Svalbard    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%
Labor force: NA
Budget: revenues:  $11.5 million

expenditures:  $11.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: NA kWh
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%
Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
Exports: $NA
Imports: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $8.2 million from Norway (1998)
Currency: Norwegian krone (NOK)
Currency code: NOK
Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 8.7784 (January 2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996)
Svalbard    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: NA
Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
Telephone system: general assessment:  probably adequate

domestic:  local telephone service

international:  satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: NA
Television broadcast stations: NA
Televisions: NA
Internet country code: .sj
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen) (2000)
Internet users: NA
Svalbard    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  NA km

paved:  NA km

unpaved:  NA km
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 4 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  3

under 914 m:  3 (2000 est.)
Svalbard    Military Top of Page
Military - note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)
Svalbard    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia