Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
南喬治亞和南桑德韋奇群島

(overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)

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   Click for Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Forecast  

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   Introduction   Geography   People   Government   Economy   Communications   Transportation   Military   Transnational Issues  
Map of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

 
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

南喬治亞和南桑德韋奇群島
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

南喬治亞,位於南大西洋距馬爾維納斯群島東南1300公里處,面積約3592平方公里。南桑德韋奇群島距南喬治亞島東南約750公里,面積約311平方公里。1775年,英國船長庫克抵達南喬治亞和南桑德韋奇群島,自此該群島被英國據為己有。1908年,該群島同南極大陸的部分及周圍近島一起成為馬爾維納斯群島的組成部分。1927年和1948年,阿根廷分別正式向南喬治亞和南桑德韋奇群島提出主權要求。1955年,英國單方面將此主權糾紛提交國際法庭處理,但由於阿根廷的堅決反對,國際法庭決定不與受理。在1982年英阿馬島戰爭之前,南喬治亞一直是英國南極考察基地。在197612月約50名報稱科技人員的阿根廷人來到之前,南桑德韋奇群島一直無人居住。1982年馬島戰爭中阿根廷人被英軍趕離。根據1985103日相關法案規定,南喬治亞和南桑德韋奇群島不再作為馬島的屬島;但英國駐馬島總督兼任駐南喬治亞和南桑德韋奇群島的專員。19935月,鑒於阿根廷政府將出售附近水域的捕漁許可證,英政府宣佈其控制領域由群島周圍12海里擴展到200海里以內,以保護珍貴的漁業資源。19989月,英政府宣佈將於2000年從南喬治亞島撤出駐紮軍隊,同時將增加島上的科研力量;英駐馬島的皇家軍隊將負責南喬治亞和南桑德韋奇群島的安全。群島的專員拉蒙特(Donalda A. Lamont)。助理專員和漁業署長傑維斯(Ross T. Jarvis)

The islands lie approximately 1,000 km east of the Falkland Islands. Grytviken, on South Georgia, was a 19th and early 20th century whaling station. The famed explorer Ernest SHACKLETON stopped there in 1914 en route to his ill-fated attempt to cross Antarctica on foot. He returned some 20 months later with a few companions in a small boat and arranged a successful rescue for the rest of his crew, stranded off the Antarctic Peninsula. He died in 1922 on a subsequent expedition and is buried in Grytviken. Today, the station houses a small military garrison. The islands have large bird and seal populations and, recognizing the importance of preserving the marine stocks in adjacent waters, the UK, in 1993, extended the exclusive fishing zone from 12 miles to 200 miles around each island.

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of the tip of South America
Geographic coordinates: 54 30 S, 37 00 W
Map references: Antarctic Region
Area: total:  3,903 sq km

land:  3,903 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes Shag Rocks, Black Rock, Clerke Rocks, South Georgia Island, Bird Island, and the South Sandwich Islands, which consist of some nine islands
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: NA km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow
Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mount Paget (South Georgia) 2,934 m
Natural resources: fish
Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)
Natural hazards: the South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on South Georgia
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    People Top of Page
Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note:  the small military garrison on South Georgia withdrew in March 2001, to be replaced by a permanent group of scientists of the British Antarctic Survey which also has a biological station on Bird Island; the South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited (July 2001 est.)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

conventional short form:  none
Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina; administered from the Falkland Islands by UK civil commissioner Donald A. LAMONT, representing Queen ELIZABETH II; Grytviken, formerly a whaling station on South Georgia, is the garrison town
National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Constitution: adopted 3 October 1985
Legal system: the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)
Flag description: the flag of the UK is used
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.
Budget: revenues:  $291,777

expenditures:  $451,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%
Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Communications Top of Page
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  NA

international:  coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken
Radio broadcast stations: none
Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)
Internet country code: .gs
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Transportation Top of Page
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Grytviken
Airports: none
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: claimed by Argentina