Flag of Turks and Caicos Islands

Turks and Caicos Islands
特克斯和凱科斯群島

(overseas territory of the UK)

國歌

  Click for Cockburn Town, Bahamas Forecast  

當地時間

   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Turks and Caicos Islands

 
Turks and Caicos Islands    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

特克斯和凱科斯群島
The Turks and Caicos Islands

面積  430平方公里。
人口  2.4萬人(1999)。黑人佔90%以上,餘為混血種人和白人。1990年出生率為26?,死亡率為4.6?。官方語言是英語。多數人信奉基督教。
首府  科伯恩城(Cockburn Town),人口2500(1987年估計)
總督  默文·瓊斯(Mervyn Jones)19991月就任。
簡況  位於巴哈馬群島東南端,距海地北部約145公里。東部瀕臨大西洋,西部同古巴隔水相望。屬亞熱帶氣候。年平均氣溫27℃
     
原為印第安人的阿拉瓦克部族和盧卡約斯部族居住地。 1512年被西班牙人發現。1766年成為英國殖民地。1799年歸巴哈馬管轄。1873年∼1959年歸牙買加管轄。1962年牙買加獨立後,該群島仍為英屬殖民地。1972年英女王第一次任命主管該群島的總督。1976年∼1980年,人民民主運動執政,要求獨立。進步民族黨在1980年大選中獲勝,放棄獨立的主張。由於一些政府官員涉嫌與毒品相關的腐敗問題,英國1986年解散了該島的行政委員會,中止了部長制政府形式,代之以三人顧問委員會。
政治  1988年恢復大選,人民民主運動獲勝。19914 月舉行大選,進步民族黨獲勝執政。 19993月大選中,德里克·泰勒(Derek Taylor)為首的人民民主運動獲勝執政。
   
【憲法】1976年生效。規定總督代表英國女王,由女王,任命擁有行政權,掌管外事、內部治安、防務和任命官員;設立法會議和行政委員會。總督任行政委員會主席。該委員會由八人組成:三名當然成員(首席部長、財政秘書、總檢察長),五名由總督從立法會議成員中指定。19883月,憲法經修改後重新頒佈。
   
【議會】稱立法會議。由3 名指定成員、行政委員會中的3名當然成員和13名普選產生的成員組成。本屆議會於19993月大選後組成。人民民主運動佔9席,進步民族黨佔4席。
   
【政府】稱行政委員會,由八人組成,其中三人為當然成員(首席秘書、財政秘書、總檢察長)。本屆行政委員會於19996月大選後組成。主要成員:主席默文·瓊斯總督,首席部長兼財政、發展和商業部長德里克·泰勒,副首席部長兼工程 、勞工和移民部長希利·尤因(Hilly Ewing)。
   
【司法機構】設最高法院。首席法官常駐巴巴多斯,首席法官不在期間由一位元地方法官代理。上訴法院設在巴哈馬的拿騷。英國樞密院為其最高上訴法院。首席法官弗雷德里克·格拉德斯通·史密斯爵士(Sir Frederic Gladstone Smith)。地方法官傑克遜(M.Jackson).
   
【政黨】有五個政黨。
1)人民民主運動(People’s Democratic Movement:執政黨。傾向於謀求獨立。曾於1976年∼1980年、1988年∼1991年執政。領袖德里克·泰勒。
2)進步民族黨(Progressive National Party:反對黨。主張保持附屬地位。曾於1980年∼1988年、1991年∼1995年執政。領袖查爾斯·華盛頓·米克西(Charles Washinton Misick)。
3)全國民主聯盟(National Democratic Alliance:1986年成立,由從進步民族黨中分裂出來的成員組建。曾參加1988年大選,但未獲席位。領袖阿里爾·米西克(Ariel Misick)。
4)特克斯和凱科斯統一黨(Turks and Caicos United Party:1985年成立。領袖格倫· 埃文斯·克拉克(Glenn Evans-Clarke)。
5)統一民主黨(The United Democratic Party):1993年成立。領袖溫德爾·斯旺(Wendal Swann),人民民主運動前副領袖。
經濟  該群島自然資源缺乏,基礎設施薄弱,無製造業,主要生產部門是漁業和鹽業,收入主要來自旅遊業和金融服務業。
   
國內生產總值(1999)1.99億美元。
   
人均國內生產總值(1999):7917美元。
   
國內生產總值增長率(1996)8.7%。
   
貨幣名稱:美元;1美元=100分。
   
失業率(1997)  10%。
 
【農漁業】農業規模很小,種植少量玉米、豆類、熱帶水果和蔬菜。漁業是重要經濟部門,有世界上最大的海螺養殖場,漁業產品是主要出口產品。1996年出口創匯300萬美元。農業和漁業人口佔全部勞動力的1/5
 
【服務業】金融服務業是近幾年新興產業,由於沒有外匯管制和不收稅,發展較快,成為主要經濟部門。1996年在該島註冊的公司共有3300家。該島公司註冊費收入達270萬美元。
 
【旅遊業】政府重視發展旅遊業,旅遊業是財政和外匯收入的主要來源之一。從業人口約2000人。1996年外國遊客總數為8.7萬人次,80%遊客來自美國和加拿大。
 
【交通運輸】公路:總長130公里。1996年有機動車3687輛。
   
水運:有通往邁阿密和佛羅里達的貨運航班。1990年國際貨運量估計為28.4萬噸。主要港口有格蘭德特克、浦羅韋登舍和南凱科斯。
   
空運:有航班通往邁阿密、海地、多明尼加和巴哈馬。
格蘭德特克、浦羅韋登舍、南凱科斯和北凱科斯都有國際機場。
   
【財政金融】關稅是財政收入的主要組成部分,約佔45%。此外英國每年繼續提供大量資金,用於基礎建設工程和技術合作。工資和補貼佔經常開支的17.4%。近幾年財政收支情況如下(單位:百萬美元)
             1995/96      1996/97
經常性收入     36.9          36.5      
經常性支出     35.0          34.4    
   
(資料來源:2000年度第4期經濟季評)
   
【對外貿易】歷年嚴重入超。主要進口食品、飲料、製成品、原材料和燃料;出口龍蝦、海螺和漁業產品。1986年龍蝦和海螺出口分別佔出口總額的28%和63%。 漁業產品出口年收入為400萬美元。主要貿易夥伴是美國、英國以及鄰國。1999年度出口額1.37億美元,進口額1.76億美元,逆差3900萬美元。
   
【外國援助】英國是最大的援助國。1994/95年度援款1020萬美元。1995年聯合國和歐盟也提供大量援助。
人民生活  1990年有1所醫院,24張病床,10家診所,10名醫生。1996年有電話機4252部,1997年有收音機8000台。該島有國際直撥電話、傳真等設施。
   
文化教育
   
【教育】 公立學校實行免費義務教育。1985年教育開支140萬美元,佔總開支的11.2%。1996年有小學21所,199394年有教師86人,學生1573人;中學5所,教師101人,學生1032人。
   
【新聞出版】主要報刊有:《特克斯和凱科斯時事》,雙月刊;《特克斯和凱科斯新聞報》,周報;《海螺新聞報》,周報。
   
有一家私營電視臺和三家商業電臺,可通過衛星收看美國電視節目。全島共有44個有線電視頻道和6家廣播電臺。其中特克斯和凱科斯廣播電臺為政府所有。

The islands were part of the UK's Jamaican colony until 1962, when they assumed the status of a separate crown colony upon Jamaica's independence. The governor of The Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence, the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was agreed upon for 1982, the policy was reversed and the islands are presently a British overseas territory.

Turks and Caicos Islands    Geography Top of Page
Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of The Bahamas
Geographic coordinates: 21 45 N, 71 35 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total:  430 sq km

land:  430 sq km

water:  0 sq km
Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 389 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Blue Hills 49 m
Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch
Land use: arable land:  2%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  98% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes
Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources, private cisterns collect rainwater
Geography - note: 30 islands (eight inhabited)
Turks and Caicos Islands    People Top of Page
Population: 18,122 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  32.58% (male 2,996; female 2,908)

15-64 years:  63.51% (male 6,050; female 5,459)

65 years and over:  3.91% (male 316; female 393) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.41% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 24.89 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 4.47 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 13.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.11 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.8 male(s)/female

total population:  1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 18.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.52 years

male:  71.37 years

female:  75.77 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.22 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  none

adjective:  none
Ethnic groups: black
Religions: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)
Languages: English (official)
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population:  98%

male:  99%

female:  98% (1970 est.)
Turks and Caicos Islands    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Turks and Caicos Islands
Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK
Government type: NA
Capital: Cockburn Town (on Grand Turk)
Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)
Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976; suspended in 1986; restored and revised 5 March 1988
Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales, with a small number adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor Mervyn JONES (since 27 January 2000)

head of government:  Chief Minister Derek H. TAYLOR (since 31 January 1995)

cabinet:  Executive Council consists of three ex officio members and five appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Council

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (19 seats, of which 13 are popularly elected; members serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 4 March 1999 (next to be held by NA 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PDM 52.2%, PNP 40.9%, independent 6.9%; seats by party - PDM 9, PNP 4
Judicial branch: Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Derek H. TAYLOR]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Washington MISICK]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Wendal SWANN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus
Turks and Caicos Islands    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism, fishing, and offshore financial services. Most capital goods and food for domestic consumption are imported. The US was the leading source of tourists in 1996, accounting for more than half of the 87,000 visitors; tourist arrivals had risen to 93,000 by 1998. Major sources of government revenue include fees from offshore financial activities and customs receipts.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $128 million (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.7% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,300 (1999 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1995)
Labor force: 4,848 (1990 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: about 33% in government and 20% in agriculture and fishing; significant numbers in tourism, financial, and other services (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 10% (1997 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $47 million

expenditures:  $33.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997-1998 est.)
Industries: tourism, offshore financial services
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 5 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 4.6 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), citrus fruits; fish
Exports: $4.7 million (1993)
Exports - commodities: lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
Exports - partners: US, UK
Imports: $46.6 million (1993)
Imports - commodities: food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction materials
Imports - partners: US, UK
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $4.1 million (1997)
Currency: US dollar (USD)
Currency code: USD
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: calendar year
Turks and Caicos Islands    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 3,000 (1994)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)
Telephone system: general assessment:  fair cable and radiotelephone services

domestic:  NA

international:  2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (one inactive), FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 8,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 0 (broadcasts from The Bahamas are received; cable television is established) (1997)
Televisions: NA
Internet country code: .tc
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 14 (2000)
Internet users: NA
Turks and Caicos Islands    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  121 km

paved:  24 km

unpaved:  97 km (2000)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Grand Turk, Providenciales
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 8 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  4

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  4

914 to 1,523 m:  2

under 914 m:  2 (2000 est.)
Turks and Caicos Islands    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
Turks and Caicos Islands    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe