Flag of Tuvalu

Tuvalu
圖瓦盧

國歌

   Click for Funafuti Airport, Tuvalu Forecast  

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   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Tuvalu

 
Tuvalu    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

圖瓦盧(Tuvalu

   面積   陸地面積26平方公里,水域面積約130萬平方公里。
   
人口   10297人(1997年)。屬波利尼西亞人種。英語是官方語言,圖瓦盧語為通用語言。居民信奉基督教。
   
首都  富納富提(Funafuti),人口2810人(1991年)。    
   
國家元首  英國女王,總督是女王的代表。總督托馬西·普阿普阿(Tomasi Puapua)
 
重要節日  圖瓦盧日(101日)。
 
簡況   位於中太平洋南部,在國際日期變更線西側。由9個環形小珊瑚島群組成,其中8個有人居住,垂直高度不超過海平面5米,富納富提為主島。海岸線長15英里。無河流。屬熱帶海洋性氣候。年平均氣溫29℃。年平均降水量3000毫米。
   
圖瓦盧人世居島上。1892年英宣佈圖瓦盧和附近的吉爾伯特為英“保護地”。1916年被劃入“英屬吉爾伯特和埃利斯群島殖民地”。197510月法律上同吉爾伯特分離,改用舊名圖瓦盧(意為八島之群)。19786月實行自治,101日獨立,由托阿利皮·勞蒂任總理。    
   
政治   沒有政黨。無軍隊。1998年肯尼貝尤·帕埃尼尤(Bikenibeu Paeniu)當選總理。19994月,議會通過對帕尼尤總理的不信任案,選舉艾奧納塔納·艾奧納塔納(Ionatana Ionatana)為總理。2000128日,艾奧納塔納總理在新西蘭猝然去世。2001223日,經圖瓦盧議會秘密選舉,法依馬拉加·盧卡(Faimalaga Luka)當選新任總理。
 
【憲法】  新憲法於1978101日獨立時生效,按憲法規定,圖為英聯邦成員國。英女王根據總理推薦任命總督。總理由議員選舉產生。內閣對議會負責,由總理和4名部長組成。總檢察長為政府的主要法律顧問。19866月修改憲法,總督失去對政府所提建議的否決權。
 
【議會】  一院制,由12名議員組成,任期4年,本屆議會於19983月產生。議長托穆·賽翁尼( Tomu Sione)。    
 
【政府】  本屆政府於19994月組成,現主要成員有:總理法依馬拉加·盧卡;副總理兼財政、經濟計劃、旅遊、貿易和商務部長拉吉圖普·圖伊利穆(Lagitupu Tuilimu);工程、能源和通信部長薩穆埃盧·佩尼塔拉·特奧(Samuelu Penitala Teo);教育、體育、文化、衛生、婦女和社團事務部長特阿加伊·埃塞基亞(Teagai Esekia)
 
【司法機構】 設最高法院。由一名大法官主持受理地區法院和八個島法院的上訴案。如要進一步上訴則由斐濟上訴法院代理或呈請英國樞密院司法委員會審理。
   
濟  資源匱乏,土地貧瘠,農業落後,幾乎無工業。家族是生產和生活的最基本單位。集體勞動,主要從事捕魚和種植椰子、香蕉、芋頭,所獲物品在家族內平分。買賣主要是以物易物。外匯收入主要靠外援、郵票和椰幹出口、收取外國在圖海域的捕魚費和在瑙魯磷礦工作的僑民匯款。1993年服務業生產總值增長率9.4%
   
國內生產總值(1995):1665萬澳元。
   
國內生產總值增長率(1995):2%。
   
貨幣名稱:圖瓦盧硬幣;通用澳大利亞貨幣。
   
匯率(1992):1澳元=0.7353圖瓦盧元。
 
【農漁業】    農業主要有椰子、香蕉、竽頭、家禽、豬等。1993年農業生產總值增長8.7%。漁業資源豐富,但無開發能力。圖與日本、韓國和中國臺灣簽有漁業協定,每年可獲捕魚費30萬澳元。
 
【旅遊業】    1993年旅遊收入30萬美元。1994年遊客為1224人。
 
【交通運輸】  以水運為主。首都富納富提有深水港。圖瓦盧有通往斐濟等的不定期班輪。斐濟航空公司每周有3次自蘇瓦飛富納富提的航班。境內有沙面公路4.9公里。
 
【財政金融】  1999年政府財政預算支出為1390萬澳元。收入主要來自“圖瓦盧信託基金”、僑匯、出售捕魚許可證和英特網電信協議。
 
【對外貿易】  1998年國內商品出口總額6.7萬澳元,進口總額1140萬澳元。主要出口椰幹;主要進口食品、燃料、製成品、機械及交通工具。主要貿易對象為新西蘭、澳大利亞和斐濟。
 
【外國援助】  主要來自英、澳、新、日、歐洲發展基金和聯合國開發計劃署。自1987年起,英國對圖財政預算援款每年減少10萬澳元。為解決由此帶來的困難,圖政府制訂了一項發展基礎設施計劃,並于同年6月設立圖瓦盧信託基金。澳、新、英、日本和韓國為主要捐助國,2000年基金達6010萬澳元。1990年利息達100萬澳元,用於政府支出,佔年預算的25%。現還發動其他國家參加捐款。1986年,圖被聯合國列為最不發達國家之一,使圖可從世界銀行得到特許貸款。根據關貿總協定,圖出口商品可獲特別關稅待遇。
   
人民生活  有1所醫院,36張床位。
   
文化教育   【教育】  普及小學教育。全國有11所小學,72名教師,在校生1485人;1所中學,有教師31人,在校生345人。還有1所海員訓練學校,52名學生。
 
【新聞出版】  圖瓦盧電臺為官方電臺,用圖瓦盧語和英語播音。
   
對外關係    奉行與所有國家友好合作的政策,同英、澳關係較深。同斐濟關係密切,在斐設有高級專員署,是圖在海外的唯一常駐外交機構。圖與英聯邦成員國和比利時、智利、荷蘭、法國、德國、日本、韓國等有外交關係。 1979年初圖與美國簽訂了友好條約(19839月生效)。根據這一條約,美放棄對圖瓦盧南部4小島的主權要求。19862月圖因對法國繼續在法屬波利尼西亞進行核試驗不滿而拒絕法軍艦訪圖。19907月圖要求英美賠償在二戰中破壞圖農田修築機場的損失。19926月,總理佩紐出席在巴西舉行的聯合國環發大會,並在會上呼籲採取措施,防止溫室效應的影響,否則將使赴圖投資者卻步。他對美國在環發會上的立場表示失望。圖參加的國際組織有亞太經社會、太平洋島國論壇、太平洋共同體、萬國郵政聯盟、亞洲開發銀行及聯合國教科文組織,還是英聯邦特殊成員。20009月加入聯合國。
 
【同中國的關係】  19886月,圖總理普阿普阿隨同南太島國領導人訪華,受到李鵬總理的會見。19973月,圖遭風災,中國紅十字會向圖捐款1萬美元。1998年中國與圖瓦盧雙邊貿易額為8.1萬美元,皆為我方出口,無進口。1999年和2000年中圖雙邊貿易額為零。
臺灣於1979年同圖瓦盧“建交”。

In 1974, ethnic differences within the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands caused the Polynesians of the Ellice Islands to vote for separation from the Micronesians of the Gilbert Islands. The following year, the Ellice Islands became the separate British colony of Tuvalu. Independence was granted in 1978. In 2000, Tuvalu negotiated a contract leasing its Internet domain name ".tv" for $50 million in royalties over the next dozen years.

Tuvalu    Geography Top of Page
Location: Oceania, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 178 00 E
Map references: Oceania
Area: total:  26 sq km

land:  26 sq km

water:  0 sq km
Area - comparative: 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 24 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location 5 m
Natural resources: fish
Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: severe tropical storms are usually rare, but, in 1997, there were three cyclones; low level of islands make them very sensitive to changes in sea level
Environment - current issues: since there are no streams or rivers and groundwater is not potable, most water needs must be met by catchment systems with storage facilities (the Japanese Government has built one desalination plant and plans to build one other); beachhead erosion because of the use of sand for building materials; excessive clearance of forest undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of the Crown of Thorns starfish; Tuvalu is very concerned about global increases in greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on rising sea levels, which threaten the country's underground water table
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
Tuvalu    People Top of Page
Population: 10,991 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  33.28% (male 1,862; female 1,796)

15-64 years:  61.6% (male 3,241; female 3,529)

65 years and over:  5.12% (male 236; female 327) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.4% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 21.56 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.72 male(s)/female

total population:  0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 22.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  66.65 years

male:  64.52 years

female:  68.88 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.09 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Tuvaluan(s)

adjective:  Tuvaluan
Ethnic groups: Polynesian 96%
Religions: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%
Languages: Tuvaluan, English
Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  NA%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%
Tuvalu    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Tuvalu

former:  Ellice Islands
Government type: constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy; began debating republic status in 1992
Capital: Funafuti
Administrative divisions: none
Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)
Constitution: 1 October 1978
Legal system: NA
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Tomasi PUAPUA (since 26 June 1998)

head of government:  Acting Prime Minister Lagitupu (of Nanumea) TUILIMU (since 8 December 2000); note - TUILIMU took over after Prime Minister Ionatana IONATANA died suddenly of a heart attack on 8 December 2000

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections:  the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of Parliament; election last held 27 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:  results of the last election for prime minister - Ionatana IONATANA elected prime minister; percent of Parliament vote - NA%; Lagitupu (of Nanumea) TUILIMU elected deputy prime minister; percent of Parliament vote - NA%; note - Deputy Prime Minister Lagitupu (of Nanumea) TUILIMU became acting prime minister following the death of Prime Minister Ionatana IONATANA on 8 December 2000
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Fale I Fono, also called House of Assembly (12 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 26-27 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 12
Judicial branch: High Court (a chief justice visits twice a year to preside over its sessions; its rulings can be appealed to the Court of Appeal in Fiji); eight Island Courts (with limited jurisdiction)
Political parties and leaders: there are no political parties but members of Parliament usually align themselves in informal groupings
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IFRCS (associate), Intelsat (nonsignatory user), ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTrO (applicant)
Diplomatic representation in the US: Tuvalu does not have an embassy in the US
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Tuvalu; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tuvalu
Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands
Tuvalu    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Tuvalu consists of a densely populated, scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker remittances. About 1,000 Tuvaluans work in Nauru in the phosphate mining industry. Nauru has begun repatriating Tuvaluans, however, as phosphate resources decline. Substantial income is received annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, NZ, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea. Thanks to wise investments and conservative withdrawals, this Fund has grown from an initial $17 million to over $35 million in 1999. The US government is also a major revenue source for Tuvalu, with 1999 payments from a 1988 treaty on fisheries at about $9 million, a total which is expected to rise annually. In an effort to reduce its dependence on foreign aid, the government is pursuing public sector reforms, including privatization of some government functions and personnel cuts of up to 7%. In 1998, Tuvalu began deriving revenue from use of its area code for "900" lines and in 2000, from the sale of its ".tv" Internet domain name. Royalties from these new technology sources could raise GDP three or more times over the next decade. In 1999, with merchandise exports falling and financing reaching less than 5% of imports, continued reliance was placed on fishing and telecommunications license fees, remittances from overseas workers, official transfers, and investment income from overseas assets to cover the trade deficit.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.6 million (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (1999 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1999 est.)
Labor force: NA
Labor force - by occupation: people make a living mainly through exploitation of the sea, reefs, and atolls and from wages sent home by those working abroad (mostly workers in the phosphate industry and sailors)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Budget: revenues:  $6.2 million

expenditures:  $6.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Industries: fishing, tourism, copra
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%
Agriculture - products: coconuts; fish
Exports: $165,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
Exports - commodities: copra
Exports - partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ
Imports: $4.4 million (c.i.f., 1989)
Imports - commodities: food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods
Imports - partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $13 million (1999 est.); note - major donors are Japan and Australia
Currency: Australian dollar (AUD); note - there is also a Tuvaluan dollar
Currency code: AUD
Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars or Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Tuvalu    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 1,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)
Telephone system: general assessment:  serves particular needs for internal communications

domestic:  radiotelephone communications between islands

international:  NA
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 4,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)
Televisions: 800
Internet country code: .tv
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: NA
Tuvalu    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  8 km

paved:  0 km

unpaved:  8 km (1996)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Funafuti, Nukufetau
Merchant marine: total:  9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,135 GRT/68,300 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 5, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)
Airports: 1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)
Tuvalu    Military Top of Page
Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force includes Maritime Surveillance Unit for search and rescue missions and surveillance operations
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%
Tuvalu    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none