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Virgin Islands
英屬維爾京群島

(territory of the US)

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   簡介   地理   人口   政制   經濟   通訊   交通   軍事   跨國事件  
Map of Virgin Islands

 
Virgin Islands    Introduction Top of Page
Background:

英屬維爾京群島
The British Virgin Islands

面積  153平方公里。D
人口  1.98萬(2000年估計)。主要是黑人。通用英語。多數人信奉基督教。D
首府  羅德城(Road Town),人口3500人(1992年)。D
總督  弗蘭克·薩維奇(Frank Savage),19985月就任。D
簡況  位於大西洋和加勒比海之間,背風群島的北端,距波多黎各東海岸100公里,與美屬維爾京群島毗鄰。屬亞熱帶氣候,年平均氣溫2132℃,年降水量1000毫米。原始土著居民為加勒比地區的印第安人。1493年哥倫布抵達該島。1672年被英國兼併。1872年成為英國殖民地背風群島的一部分,受背風群島總督管轄至1960年。此後該島由被任命的首席部長負責管理。19869月,維爾京群島黨上臺執政,並在199011月、19952月、19995月大選中連續獲勝。
政治  1999517日舉行大選,維爾京群島黨再次獲勝,拉爾夫·奧尼爾(Ralph O Neal)繼續擔任首席部長。
D
【憲法】現行憲法於19674月生效,19776月修訂。規定總督由英王任命,負責防務、治安、外事、司法和部分財政事務,並擁有有限立法權;設行政委員會,由總督、總檢察長、首席部長和另外三名部長組成,處理行政事務。總督任行政委員會主席;首席部長由總督在立法委員會多數黨成員中指定。1993年底,根據現政府的請求,英國政府任命一個三人委員會,旨在研究並討論修改關於增加立法機構中黨派的席位數、直選首席部長以及促成權利法通過等。D
【議會】立法委員會由13名直接選舉成員、議長和總檢察長組成。任期四年。1999517日大選,維爾京群島黨獲7席,新成立的民族民主黨獲5席,關心市民運動獲1席。議長魯本·範特爾浦(Reuben Vanterpool)。D
【政府】本屆行政委員會成員有:主席弗蘭克·薩維奇,首席部長兼財政部長拉爾夫·奧尼爾,自然資源和勞工部長朱利安·弗雷澤(Julian Frazer),通訊、工程和公共事業部長阿爾文·克里斯托弗(Alvin Christopher),衛生、教育、文化和福利部長艾琳·帕森斯(Eileen Parsons),總檢察長暫缺。D
【司法機構】司法受轄於東加勒比高等法院。島內設最高法院和上訴法院以及一個地方法院、一個青少年法院和一個裁判權法院。東加勒比最高法院在島內設一位元常駐陪席推事。現任陪席推事多里昂·泰勒(Dorien Taylor)。D
【政黨】有四個政黨。D
1)維爾京群島黨(Virgin Islands Party):執政黨,70年代初成立。領袖拉爾夫·奧尼爾。D
2)民族民主黨(National Democratic Party):成立於19985月。領袖奧蘭多·史密斯(Orlando Smith)。(3)統一黨(United Party):60年代中期成立。領袖康拉德·麥德羅(Conrad Maduro)。D
4)關心市民運動(Concerned Citizen’s Movement):1994年成立。前身為獨立人民運動。領袖奧馬爾·霍奇(Omar Hodge)和沃爾溫·布魯利(Walwyn Brewley)。
經濟  主要依靠旅遊業和金融服務業。近年來,經濟增長較快。D
國內生產總值(1999)6.7億美元。D
國內生產總值增長率(1999)6%。D
人均國內生產總值(1999)38500美元。D
貨幣名稱:美元。D
通貨膨脹率(1999)2%。D
【工業】實行十年免稅制以促進工業發展。製造業規模較小,1997年其產值佔國內生產總值9.9%,集中了全國21.3%的勞力。主要生產朗姆酒、旅遊品、書籍和建材等。近年來,由於旅遊業進行革新和擴建,建築業發展很快,1997年其產值佔國內生產總值的6.3%,從事建築業的人數佔總勞動人口的18%。D
【農業】1997年農業產值約佔國內生產總值的1.5%,從業人員佔勞動人口的1.9%。約有耕地800公頃,草場4000公頃。主要種植水果、蔬菜和甘蔗。水果和蔬菜供國內消費並出口美屬維爾京,甘蔗主要用於釀造朗姆酒。有畜牧養殖業。主要出口漁業產品。但大部分食品靠進口。1999年政府決定通過修改法律和政策來提高農產品的檔次,以保證農業自給並少量出口。1998年有牛2000頭,豬2000頭,羊16000只。D
【服務業】為加勒比地區的金融中心之一。金融服務業和房地產業是新興產業,近年來發展很快。政府進行立法促進保險業務以加強金融業並使其多元化。1998年離岸金融業收入佔政府直接收入的51.1%。2000年底在此註冊的外國公司有350000家。D
【旅遊業】是最重要的經濟部門和發展計劃的基礎。1995年政府制定一個新的國家旅遊計劃以提高群島知名度。1997年其產值佔國內生產總值的15.4%。全國有1/3的勞力直接或間接從事旅遊業。1998年共接待遊客392290人次。遊客主要來自美國。ID
【交通運輸】島內以公路運輸為主。羅德城地區的一雙車道公路專案於1996年初開工,耗資約480萬美元。公路:總長約160公里。1997年有7944輛載客汽車。水運:有直達英國、美國和荷蘭的航線。主要港口是羅德城。D
空運:有通往邁阿密以及美屬維爾京、聖基茨等附近島國的航線。主要機場是距羅德城約16公里的牛肉島機場,有四個航班,另外在阿內加達島和維爾京戈爾達島有兩個小機場。D
【財政金融】近幾年財政收支情況如下(單位:百萬美元):
         1994         1995       1996      
收入      98.6        108.8      123.6      
支出      89.1        109.5        98        
差額       9.5          0.7        25.6      
(資料來源:1997/1998年度經濟季評)D
【對外貿易】主要貿易物件是美國、特立尼達和多巴哥、安提瓜和巴布達、英國,歷年均為入超。主要進口產品是機器、食品和燃料。主要出口食品、生禽、煙草、酒類和運輸器械。2000年出口額620萬美元,進口額2.2億美元。D
【外國援助】援助主要來自英國和加勒比開發銀行。1991年英國援助(包括技術援助)達290萬美元。1992年獲首府建設專案援助1120萬美元。90年代中期國家旅遊計劃已獲准進行,由東加勒比國家組織出資。D
人民生活 1989年有1所醫院,50張病床。1987年有11名醫生和2名牙醫,另有一所8床位私人美容院、9個保健中心和1個老年公民之家。1990年每1056名居民有1名醫生。1991年醫療服務開支估計為570萬美元。1997年有收音機9000台、電視機4000台、電話16000部。
文化教育
【教育】中小學實行免費義務教育。有一所高等學校?維爾京群島大學。成人文盲率約為5%。1992年教育開支為1100萬美元。1997年各級學校和師生數量情況如下:
           
學校(所)      教師(人)    學生(人)
學前  5             52           206
小學 20           169       2760
中學  4           115       1478
大學  1
(資料來源:2000年歐洲年鑒、20004季度經濟季評)D
【新聞出版】有三家刊物:《英屬維爾京燈塔》,1984年創刊,周刊,發行量3000份;《維島太陽》,1962年創刊,周刊,發行量2850份;《歡迎》,1971年創刊,雙月刊,主要介紹旅遊資訊,年發行量165000份。D
維爾京群島廣播有線公司創立於1965年,設ZBVI電臺,進行商業性廣播。英屬維爾京群島有線電視臺,主要通過電纜收看美屬維爾京群島和波多黎各的電視節目。ZBTV西印度有線電視臺?商業性電視臺。D
對外關係  為加勒比共同體和共同市場、東加勒比國家組織聯繫成員和加勒比開發銀行成員。

During the 17th century, the archipelago was divided into two territorial units, one English and the other Danish. Sugarcane, produced by slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1917, the US purchased the Danish portion, which had been in economic decline since the abolition of slavery in 1848.

Virgin Islands    Geography Top of Page
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 18 20 N, 64 50 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total:  352 sq km

land:  349 sq km

water:  3 sq km
Area - comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 188 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November
Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Crown Mountain 474 m
Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf
Land use: arable land:  15%

permanent crops:  6%

permanent pastures:  26%

forests and woodland:  6%

other:  47% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and severe droughts and floods; occasional earthquakes
Environment - current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources
Geography - note: important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in the Caribbean
Virgin Islands    People Top of Page
Population: 122,211 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  27.27% (male 17,121; female 16,204)

15-64 years:  63.92% (male 35,391; female 42,727)

65 years and over:  8.81% (male 4,638; female 6,130) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.06% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 15.9 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.83 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.76 male(s)/female

total population:  0.88 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 9.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  78.27 years

male:  74.38 years

female:  82.39 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Virgin Islander(s)

adjective:  Virgin Islander
Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 15%, other 5%

note:  West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%
Religions: Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%
Languages: English (official), Spanish, Creole
Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  NA%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%
Virgin Islands    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  United States Virgin Islands

conventional short form:  Virgin Islands

former:  Danish West Indies
Dependency status: organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations between the Virgin Islands and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Government type: NA
Capital: Charlotte Amalie
Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three islands at the second order; Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas
National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to the US), 27 March (1917)
Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Legal system: based on US laws
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state:  President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (Since 20 January 2001)

head of government:  Governor Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL (since 5 January 1999) and Lieutenant Governor Gererd LUZ James II (since 5 January 1999)

cabinet:  NA

elections:  US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2002)

election results:  Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL elected governor; percent of vote - Dr. Charles W. TURNBULL (Democrat) 58.9%, former Governor Roy L. SCHNEIDER (ICM) 41.1%
Legislative branch: unicameral Senate (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)

elections:  last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 6, ICM 2, independents 7

note:  the Virgin Islands elects one non-voting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); results - Donna M. CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSON (Democrat) elected
Judicial branch: US District Court of the Virgin Islands (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Territorial Court (judges appointed by the governor for 10-year terms)
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHON]; Republican Party [Gary SCROUVE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)
Flag description: white, with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows a yellow eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel
Virgin Islands    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The islands normally host 2 million visitors a year. The manufacturing sector consists of petroleum refining, textiles, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and watch assembly. The agricultural sector is small, with most food being imported. International business and financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. One of the world's largest petroleum refineries is at Saint Croix. The islands are subject to substantial damage from storms. The government is working to improve fiscal discipline, support construction projects in the private sector, expand tourist facilities, and protect the environment.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%
Labor force: 47,443 (1990 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 20%, services 79% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.9% (March 1999)
Budget: revenues:  $364.4 million

expenditures:  $364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 1.02 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 948.6 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables, sorghum; Senepol cattle
Exports: $NA
Exports - commodities: refined petroleum products
Exports - partners: US, Puerto Rico
Imports: $NA
Imports - commodities: crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
Imports - partners: US, Puerto Rico
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: US dollar (USD)
Currency code: USD
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Virgin Islands    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 62,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,000 (1992)
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  modern, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

international:  submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite earth stations - NA
Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 11, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 107,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Televisions: 68,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .vi
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)
Internet users: 12,000 (2000)
Virgin Islands    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  856 km

paved:  NA km

unpaved:  NA km (2000)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, Cruz Bay, Port Alucroix
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 2

note:  international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2 (2000 est.)
Virgin Islands    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US
Virgin Islands    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none


4.9% (March 1999)
Budget: revenues:  $364.4 million

expenditures:  $364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 1.02 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 948.6 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables, sorghum; Senepol cattle
Exports: $NA
Exports - commodities: refined petroleum products
Exports - partners: US, Puerto Rico
Imports: $NA
Imports - commodities: crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
Imports - partners: US, Puerto Rico
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: US dollar (USD)
Currency code: USD
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Virgin Islands    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 62,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,000 (1992)
Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  modern, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

international:  submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite earth stations - NA
Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 11, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 107,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Televisions: 68,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .vi
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)
Internet users: 12,000 (2000)
Virgin Islands    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total:  856 km

paved:  NA km

unpaved:  NA km (2000)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, Cruz Bay, Port Alucroix
Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)
Airports: 2

note:  international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2 (2000 est.)
Virgin Islands    Military Top of Page
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US
Virgin Islands    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: none